Climax – Rhetorical stylistic device

What is a climax?

Image result for climax in literatureThe Climax (from ancient Greek “klimax” = ladder) is a rhetorical stylistic device of enhancement .

In several (usually three) stages Klimax puts together words, phrases or phrases, moving from a weak expression to a stronger one to the strongest. The last term of the sequence thus represents its climax.

Example:

“I begged, begged, begged on my knees.”

The increase may refer to different qualities. Thus the concepts can move from the smallest to the largest, from the most insignificant to the most important, from the most inaccurate to the most precise or from the lowest to the highest.

“The news spread in every village, every city, every country.”

“Everyone was full of joy that day, beggar, peasant or nobleman.”

»I read what I like: penny books, entertainment novels, works of world literature.«

Effect of climax

The slow approach to the subject, the gradual, gradual movement towards the goal statement, increases the tension and excites the listener or reader. One of the most famous examples of this is Julius Caesar’s saying:

“Veni, vidi, vici.”
(“I came, I saw, I conquered.”)

Linguist and rhetoric expert Anita Hermann-Ruess says about this process: “When we boost, it’s like turning the main switch that controls the intensity of the emotions.” [1]

The climax in the literature

The Klimax is also used in literature as a rhetorical device to put the reader in an expectation and to raise his attention. Using the Klimax makes a text lively, emotional and expressive:

“I declared war on the kingship, I struck it, I killed it and threw a king’s head as a gauntlet for the kings.”
Georg Büchner, Danton’s death

“You understood? You forgave? You forgot? What a misunderstanding, you just stopped loving. ”
Arthur Schnitzler, aphorisms and reflections

Climax and anti-climax

The rhetorical process underlying the climax is called Amplificatio (lat. = Extension). Such an extension can be an increase as just described. But it can also appear as a reduction and weakening. In this opposite case one speaks of the Antiklimax.

Examples:

“She’s just jealous: my house, my kitchen, even my coffee machine.”

“Roland loved all nature, trees, shrubs, and blades of grass.”

Important: The effect is the amplification and increase of the statement just as with the Klimax. This effect is produced only by a reverse process. As the examples show, the anti-climax is in some cases more effective than the climax: how great must be the envy of a woman who begrudges her neighbor even the coffee machine. And how strong must Roland’s love of nature be if he loves the blades of grass himself!

The Klimax in sales pitch and advertising

In sales psychology , the climax is known as a means to reinforce a statement and make it more memorable. Sales arguments are not simply strung together, but placed in a logical context: From the weakest argument, the seller proceeds step by step to more convincing arguments to finally reach the pinnacle of the conversation with the strongest selling point.

So could a bookseller z. For example, recommend a book on memory training in the following words:

»The title is on the Spiegel bestseller list. Most have already read it. He is so exciting that you will not let him out of his hand anymore. But best of all, you can boost your memory with the included exercises! «

Further examples:

»The drink has hardly any calories, tastes delicious and improves the appearance of the skin in a few days.«

»This wall paint is inexpensive and at the same time ecologically harmless. With her dreamlike natural tones she transforms your living space into a private paradise. «

In advertising slogans are numerous examples of the use of Klimax and Antiklimax. Often called the last link in the chain of increase instead of the superlative brand name. This procedure requires a basic understanding of the forms of customer enhancement.

“Well. Better. Paulaner. “

“Bigger. Better. Burger King. “

“Clear. Bubbly. Sprite. “

“Square. Practically. Well.”

Irony – Rhetorical stylistic devices

What is irony?

Irony is a rhetorical stylistic device that signifies improper speech: to understand what is meant, it is therefore necessary to turn the speaker’s statement into its exact opposite. Since irony can often be unambiguously decoded only by means of verbal signals (“distorted” voice, undertone) or nonverbal signals (facial expressions, gestures), this stylistic device is used primarily in colloquial language – yet irony is also in every literary genre Find.

The term irony

The term irony is derived from the Greek word eironeia, which roughly corresponds to the meaning of “pretense” or “dissimulation.” Consequently, the trait of irony is already fairly well represented by Greek origin.

Examples for a better understanding

Since an ironic speaker makes a statement that contradicts his beliefs or even the obvious facts, the listener is required a mental leap in order to get on the track of what is actually meant. In everyday life, however, the knowledge of the situational background is often enough to recognize an ironic saying without doubt.

example 1

Family Meier is on the way to the beach with bag and bag, when suddenly it begins to rain heavily. “That’s great weather!” The father sighs.

Noting that the family is planning a day in the sun, it is self-explanatory that the father’s phrase is an ironic statement. If it were in principle quite conceivable that the Meier family can even get excited about a rain shower, the bad weather in this special case simply has to stand in the way of the hoped-for bathing fun. On top of that, the sigh is another indication that the rain is in fact anything but great.

If it were not necessary to understand the first example, to be familiar with the special preferences and idiosyncrasies of the Meier family, in many other cases a common knowledge or a consistent background of experiences is required to make a statement truly unequivocally ironic identify.

Example 2

With a beating heart Kira has finally decided to part with her long hair. “Great hairstyle,” yells Julia, who happens to meet her on the way home.

Now Kira is to be wished that Julia really means the compliment sincerely. But if Julia is not one of her better friends, this statement should lead to a sense of insecurity. If in this case the person concerned is not fully aware of the possible ironic content of the statement, it is practically impossible for outsiders to come to a reasoned judgment. For the decryption the knowledge is required, in which relationship the two girls stand to each other.

What is the function of irony?

Image result for ironyIf it seems at first absurd that a speaker makes the understanding of his statements more difficult by the use of irony, the two illustrated examples already point to typical reasons for the use of this rhetorical agent. Thus, in the first case, by the words of the father for a loosening of the basically annoying situation provided. Irony can help spur communication with more variety, originality and wit.

If in the second example the regrettable case is assumed that Julia also ironically means her statement, this stylistic device is used as a deliberate encryption of what is actually intended. In addition, the irony of distancing and demarcation can serve – and thus also fulfill an identity-creating function. If, for the understanding of irony, a very special common knowledge between speaker and receiver is required, the interlocutors identify themselves as having a successful communication (in this case recognizing the ironic meaning) as a common group – for example of scientists, music lovers or allotment gardeners ,

Differentiation to sarcasm and cynicism

The stylistic device of irony has certain similarities to both sarcasm and cynicism , which can occasionally lead to confusion in everyday language. Above all, however, due to the different directions of impact, the three terms can be distinguished relatively clearly from each other.

For the time being, irony is value-neutral as a linguistic means of expression. This means that the ironic statement can convey positive, negative or even neutral messages depending on the situation.

Although sarcastic expressions are often dressed in an ironic guise, they always have a mocking or even scornful background. A sarcastic speaker always opposes the recipient with a negative connotation.

The term cynicism , on the other hand, is used to describe a mental attitude that does not care about norms and social conventions, and ridicules these – among other things with the help of irony – in a manner that is often personally hurtful.

Irony in texts

In writing, the understanding of ironic utterances is always hampered by the lack of nonverbal means of communication. If the irony in conversations is identified, among other things, on the basis of “associated” facial expressions and gestures, this stylistic device in all literary genres can usually only be identified by the communication of the situational background. Often, however, the author presupposes shared world or specialist knowledge with the reader.

However, the now-inflationary use of emoticons is a proof that ironic statements in texts are often misunderstood. Since misinterpretations, especially in personal correspondence, often lead to angry reactions, emoticons have gained in importance in modern communication from the e-mail to the WhatsApp message as an indication of ironic statements.

Irony – Rhetorical stylistic devices

What is irony?

Image result for ironyIrony is a rhetorical stylistic device that signifies improper speech: to understand what is meant, it is therefore necessary to turn the speaker’s statement into its exact opposite. Since irony can often be unambiguously decoded only by means of verbal signals (“distorted” voice, undertone) or nonverbal signals (facial expressions, gestures), this stylistic device is used primarily in colloquial language – yet irony is also in every literary genre Find.

The term irony

The term irony is derived from the Greek word eironeia, which roughly corresponds to the meaning of “pretense” or “dissimulation.” Consequently, the trait of irony is already fairly well represented by Greek origin.

Examples for a better understanding

Since an ironic speaker makes a statement that contradicts his beliefs or even the obvious facts, the listener is required a mental leap in order to get on the track of what is actually meant. In everyday life, however, the knowledge of the situational background is often enough to recognize an ironic saying without doubt.

example 1

Family Meier is on the way to the beach with bag and bag, when suddenly it begins to rain heavily. “That’s great weather!” The father sighs.

Noting that the family is planning a day in the sun, it is self-explanatory that the father’s phrase is an ironic statement. If it were in principle quite conceivable that the Meier family can even get excited about a rain shower, the bad weather in this special case simply has to stand in the way of the hoped-for bathing fun. On top of that, the sigh is another indication that the rain is in fact anything but great.

If it were not necessary to understand the first example, to be familiar with the special preferences and idiosyncrasies of the Meier family, in many other cases a common knowledge or a consistent background of experiences is required to make a statement truly unequivocally ironic identify.

Example 2

With a beating heart Kira has finally decided to part with her long hair. “Great hairstyle,” yells Julia, who happens to meet her on the way home.

Now Kira is to be wished that Julia really means the compliment sincerely. But if Julia is not one of her better friends, this statement should lead to a sense of insecurity. If in this case the person concerned is not fully aware of the possible ironic content of the statement, it is practically impossible for outsiders to come to a reasoned judgment. For the decryption the knowledge is required, in which relationship the two girls stand to each other.

What is the function of irony?

Image result for ironyIf it seems at first absurd that a speaker makes the understanding of his statements more difficult by the use of irony, the two illustrated examples already point to typical reasons for the use of this rhetorical agent. Thus, in the first case, by the words of the father for a loosening of the basically annoying situation provided. Irony can help spur communication with more variety, originality and wit.

If in the second example the regrettable case is assumed that Julia also ironically means her statement, this stylistic device is used as a deliberate encryption of what is actually intended. In addition, the irony of distancing and demarcation can serve – and thus also fulfill an identity-creating function. If, for the understanding of irony, a very special common knowledge between speaker and receiver is required, the interlocutors identify themselves as having a successful communication (in this case recognizing the ironic meaning) as a common group – for example of scientists, music lovers or allotment gardeners ,

Differentiation to sarcasm and cynicism

The stylistic device of irony has certain similarities to both sarcasm and cynicism , which can occasionally lead to confusion in everyday language. Above all, however, due to the different directions of impact, the three terms can be distinguished relatively clearly from each other.

For the time being, irony is value-neutral as a linguistic means of expression. This means that the ironic statement can convey positive, negative or even neutral messages depending on the situation.

Although sarcastic expressions are often dressed in an ironic guise, they always have a mocking or even scornful background. A sarcastic speaker always opposes the recipient with a negative connotation.

The term cynicism , on the other hand, is used to describe a mental attitude that does not care about norms and social conventions, and ridicules these – among other things with the help of irony – in a manner that is often personally hurtful.

Irony in texts

In writing, the understanding of ironic utterances is always hampered by the lack of nonverbal means of communication. If the irony in conversations is identified, among other things, on the basis of “associated” facial expressions and gestures, this stylistic device in all literary genres can usually only be identified by the communication of the situational background. Often, however, the author presupposes shared world or specialist knowledge with the reader.

However, the now-inflationary use of emoticons is a proof that ironic statements in texts are often misunderstood. Since misinterpretations, especially in personal correspondence, often lead to angry reactions, emoticons have gained in importance in modern communication from the e-mail to the WhatsApp message as an indication of ironic statements.

Hyperbola – Rhetorical style means

What is a hyperbola?

Related imageThe hyperbola (from ancient Greek “hyper bállein” = throw beyond the target, surpass) is a rhetorical stylistic device that belongs to the word characters. Their hallmark is the emphasis on exaggeration . Because the hyperbola can move in the vicinity of irony, it is occasionally attributed to the tropics .

What are tropics?

Tropics is the generic term for a number of stylistic devices . In a trope (also: Tropus) is always an improper and pictorial expression. The meaning is not directly formulated, but replaced by another linguistic phrase. This comes either from the immediate vicinity or from another area of ​​imagination. It is used to make what is said more vivid and lively or to decorate a speech.

The term derives from the Greek tropos = turn . Even in Greek antiquity, tropics were popular as a means of rhetoric or stylistics. They were separated from each other and individually defined. The tropics include allegory , antonomatism, emphasis, euphemism , hyperbole, irony , catachesis (dead metaphor), Litotes , Metalepse, metaphor , metonymy , periphrase, personification , riddles, sarcasm, and synekdoche .

It is closely related to a form of the Litotes , namely the emphasis on understatement and attenuation. The hyperbole, however, accomplishes the goal by the opposite means: to emphasize a fact, it exposes it and pushes it to the extreme. The Duden cites as examples “heavenly” and “like sand by the sea”.

Hyperbole and metaphor

Often the hyperbola appears in the form of a metaphor . The two rhetorical stylistic devices reinforce each other in their impact and expressiveness.

In metaphor, a description is transferred from one conceptual world to another, e.g. B: “He is my rock in the surf.” The image of the rock on which the waves break stands for strength and imperturbability.

When the metaphor and the hyperbola are interlinked, the characteristic of exaggeration is added: “He is my Hercules.” Here too there is a picture, the Greek legendary figure of Hercules, representative of power and attitude (metaphor). The fact that the selected mythological figure is a demigod with superhuman abilities serves to reinforce and enhance the image (hyperbola).

The hyperbole in everyday usage

In everyday language, the hyperbola can be used to lend particular emphasis to a statement. That is why she often appears in disputes and is used to underline allegations and criticism.

Hyperbole in everyday language (communication of criticism)

  • “I’ve told you that a hundred times.”
  • “Do you always have to go at a snail’s pace?”

Those who speak particularly colorful, emotional and expressive also like to use hyperbole.

Hyperbola in everyday language (further examples)

  • “I’m so tired I could fall asleep standing up.”
  • “She spewed poison and bile in anger.”

The hyperbole in the literature

The hyperbola can not only exaggerate a situation, but also represent it particularly visually rich, emotional and expressive. That is why it is naturally very common in literary texts. They are found in all literary genres.

In literary epochs , which give great importance to the depiction of moods and emotions, she is particularly popular.

storm and stress

In the Sturm und Drang , she expresses lively feelings such as passionate infatuation or enthusiastic enthusiasm for nature.

Examples:

“She has a melody she plays on the piano, with the power of an angel.”
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, The Sorrows of Young Werther, 1774

“Blossoms are coming from each branch / And a thousand voices / from the bushes”
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Mailied, 1774

romance

In romance , she illustrates enthusiastic emotion and religious worship.

Examples:

“How sweet were the sweet words. As he spoke, the expression of the dark blue eye increased, and every flash of lightning poured a stream of glow into my heart. ”
E. Th. A. Hoffmann, Don Juan, 1813

“The works of this William […] are so delicate, delicate, keen, and alive, that one should almost believe they were made by the hands of the angels, and they quake at the sight of them.”
Clemens Brentano, The Chronicle of the Pupil, 1818

expressionism

In expressionism , the hyperbola often portrays the gigantomania of the big cities. It also serves to describe traumatic experiences and illnesses.

Examples:

“The church bells tremendous number / Waltz to him from black towers sea”
Georg Heym, The God of the City, 1910

“Here this bleeds like thirty bodies”
Gottfried Benn, husband and wife walk through the Krebsbaracke, 1912

The hyperbole in advertising

Advertising thrives on presenting the advertised in the best light. That is why the hyperbola is often used here. The truthfulness of a slogan is often secondary to its function of promoting a product and highlighting it to the competition. The brand claims high C, their orange juice is “as important as the daily bread”. The private TV broadcaster Kabel eins prides itself on broadcasting »the best films of all time«, while the public-law NDR confidently calls itself »the best of the north«.

The proximity of hyperbole to irony plays a special role nowadays. Twentieth century advertising messages such as “Wash so white, it does not get any whiter” (Dash) are no longer a serious selling point for oversaturated consumers of the present day.

On the contrary, a brand can score points with its uncompromising self-portrayal and ironic refraction. When childrens surprise “on behalf of eternal youth and happiness” is on the way, the wording proves winking distance. A brand that admits in this way the unfulfillability of extreme product promises even acts sympathetic and confident.

Further examples from the advertisement

  • »Do not just wash clean, but clean« (Ariel)
  • “To enjoy infinitely” (Amicelli)
  • »Driving in its most beautiful form« (Porsche)
  • »We are the good guys« (ProMarkt)
  • “Good is not good enough for us” (Hertie)
  • Everything is possible (HP)

Hyperbola – Rhetorical style means

What is a hyperbola?

Related imageThe hyperbola (from ancient Greek “hyper bállein” = throw beyond the target, surpass) is a rhetorical stylistic device that belongs to the word characters. Their hallmark is the emphasis on exaggeration . Because the hyperbola can move in the vicinity of irony, it is occasionally attributed to the tropics .

What are tropics?

Tropics is the generic term for a number of stylistic devices . In a trope (also: Tropus) is always an improper and pictorial expression. The meaning is not directly formulated, but replaced by another linguistic phrase. This comes either from the immediate vicinity or from another area of ​​imagination. It is used to make what is said more vivid and lively or to decorate a speech.

The term derives from the Greek tropos = turn . Even in Greek antiquity, tropics were popular as a means of rhetoric or stylistics. They were separated from each other and individually defined. The tropics include allegory , antonomatism, emphasis, euphemism , hyperbole, irony , catachesis (dead metaphor), Litotes , Metalepse, metaphor , metonymy , periphrase, personification , riddles, sarcasm, and synekdoche .

It is closely related to a form of the Litotes , namely the emphasis on understatement and attenuation. The hyperbole, however, accomplishes the goal by the opposite means: to emphasize a fact, it exposes it and pushes it to the extreme. The Duden cites as examples “heavenly” and “like sand by the sea”.

Hyperbole and metaphor

Often the hyperbola appears in the form of a metaphor . The two rhetorical stylistic devices reinforce each other in their impact and expressiveness.

In metaphor, a description is transferred from one conceptual world to another, e.g. B: “He is my rock in the surf.” The image of the rock on which the waves break stands for strength and imperturbability.

When the metaphor and the hyperbola are interlinked, the characteristic of exaggeration is added: “He is my Hercules.” Here too there is a picture, the Greek legendary figure of Hercules, representative of power and attitude (metaphor). The fact that the selected mythological figure is a demigod with superhuman abilities serves to reinforce and enhance the image (hyperbola).

The hyperbole in everyday usage

In everyday language, the hyperbola can be used to lend particular emphasis to a statement. That is why she often appears in disputes and is used to underline allegations and criticism.

Hyperbole in everyday language (communication of criticism)

  • “I’ve told you that a hundred times.”
  • “Do you always have to go at a snail’s pace?”

Those who speak particularly colorful, emotional and expressive also like to use hyperbole.

Hyperbola in everyday language (further examples)

  • “I’m so tired I could fall asleep standing up.”
  • “She spewed poison and bile in anger.”

The hyperbole in the literature

The hyperbola can not only exaggerate a situation, but also represent it particularly visually rich, emotional and expressive. That is why it is naturally very common in literary texts. They are found in all literary genres.

In literary epochs , which give great importance to the depiction of moods and emotions, she is particularly popular.

storm and stress

In the Sturm und Drang , she expresses lively feelings such as passionate infatuation or enthusiastic enthusiasm for nature.

Examples:

“She has a melody she plays on the piano, with the power of an angel.”
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, The Sorrows of Young Werther, 1774

“Blossoms are coming from each branch / And a thousand voices / from the bushes”
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Mailied, 1774

romance

In romance , she illustrates enthusiastic emotion and religious worship.

Examples:

“How sweet were the sweet words. As he spoke, the expression of the dark blue eye increased, and every flash of lightning poured a stream of glow into my heart. ”
E. Th. A. Hoffmann, Don Juan, 1813

“The works of this William […] are so delicate, delicate, keen, and alive, that one should almost believe they were made by the hands of the angels, and they quake at the sight of them.”
Clemens Brentano, The Chronicle of the Pupil, 1818

expressionism

In expressionism , the hyperbola often portrays the gigantomania of the big cities. It also serves to describe traumatic experiences and illnesses.

Examples:

“The church bells tremendous number / Waltz to him from black towers sea”
Georg Heym, The God of the City, 1910

“Here this bleeds like thirty bodies”
Gottfried Benn, husband and wife walk through the Krebsbaracke, 1912

The hyperbole in advertising

Advertising thrives on presenting the advertised in the best light. That is why the hyperbola is often used here. The truthfulness of a slogan is often secondary to its function of promoting a product and highlighting it to the competition. The brand claims high C, their orange juice is “as important as the daily bread”. The private TV broadcaster Kabel eins prides itself on broadcasting »the best films of all time«, while the public-law NDR confidently calls itself »the best of the north«.

The proximity of hyperbole to irony plays a special role nowadays. Twentieth century advertising messages such as “Wash so white, it does not get any whiter” (Dash) are no longer a serious selling point for oversaturated consumers of the present day.

On the contrary, a brand can score points with its uncompromising self-portrayal and ironic refraction. When childrens surprise “on behalf of eternal youth and happiness” is on the way, the wording proves winking distance. A brand that admits in this way the unfulfillability of extreme product promises even acts sympathetic and confident.

Further examples from the advertisement

  • »Do not just wash clean, but clean« (Ariel)
  • “To enjoy infinitely” (Amicelli)
  • »Driving in its most beautiful form« (Porsche)
  • »We are the good guys« (ProMarkt)
  • “Good is not good enough for us” (Hertie)
  • Everything is possible (HP)

Euphemism – Rhetoric stylistic devices

What is a euphemism?

Image result for euphemismEuphemism is a stylistic device that belongs to the tropics . It is used to euphemize or mitigate a fact, an object or a person. Linguistic concealment of a term attempts to make unpleasant truths sound more positive. Euphemisms are therefore found in literature as well as in everyday life, in advertising, in business and politics.

What are tropics?

Tropics is the generic term for a number of stylistic devices . In a trope (also: Tropus) is always an improper and pictorial expression. The meaning is not directly formulated, but replaced by another linguistic phrase. This comes either from the immediate vicinity or from another area of ​​imagination. It is used to make what is said more vivid and lively or to decorate a speech.

The term derives from the Greek tropos = turn . Even in Greek antiquity, tropics were popular as a means of rhetoric or stylistics. They were separated from each other and individually defined. The tropics include allegory , antonomatism, emphasis, euphemism, hyperbole , irony , catachesis (dead metaphor), Litotes , Metalepse, metaphor , metonymy , periphrase, personification , riddles, sarcasm, and synekdoche . Examples of euphemisms

  • “Full-bodied” instead of fat
  • “Fallen asleep forever” instead of dying
  • “Senior citizens’ residence” instead of a nursing home
  • “Account Manager” instead of salesperson
  • »Contribution adjustment« instead of contribution increase
  • »Misstep« instead of offense

Euphemism – Conceptual origin

Euphemism is the latinized form of Greek εὐφημία euphēmía = words of good predilection; ultimately going back to ὖὖ eu good and φημί phēmí I say . (Wilhelm Gemoll: Greek-German School and Hand Dictionary, Munich / Vienna 1965)

The formation of euphemisms

Euphemisms are formed in different ways:

  • There are paraphrases , such as “good together” for fat.
  • In some cases, only a part of the whole is called. Thus, many people refer to the serious disease of cancer only as “the disease.”
  • Word games like “Sapperment” are also often used for the sacrament.
  • Euphemisms in the form of abbreviations should often avoid a rather embarrassing word. This is how the nowadays common “bra” for brassier came about.
  • The use of technical and foreign words is particularly widespread. If the English word “Event” is used for any event, this should be upgraded.
  • Even with a spelling adopted from a foreign language is an appreciation intended. This often occurs in advertising and in product names. Here you will find, for example, the spellings »Cosmetic« and »Cigarettes«.

Euphemisms replace the original name

Image result for euphemismAfter some time, many euphemisms accept the negative sense of meaning of the term that they replace. Or at least they lose the euphemism and become neutral concepts.

For example, today the euphemism of the “cleaning person”, which was originally used as a joke, is so common that it is perceived as a normal job title. Thus, the term “cleaning lady” was almost completely ousted. New “euphemisms” are already in circulation for the “cleaner”. Today almost exclusively jokingly meant is the euphemism »parquet beautician«.

The euphemism in everyday life

In everyday usage, there are strikingly many euphemisms in areas of life that many people do not like to talk about openly. In addition to illness and death, these are, for example, sexuality, bodily functions and certain body parts. For example, new terms are repeatedly invented for genitals. Only a few people use the medically correct names in private contexts.

Euphemisms in everyday language are also often intended to enhance certain things, activities and people. This happens, for example, when a hairdresser calls himself a “hairdresser.”

Examples of euphemisms in everyday life

  • “Blessing the temporal” instead of dying
  • “Seek the space” instead of fleeing
  • “Third teeth” instead of artificial teeth
  • “Not on the dam” instead of sick
  • “In other circumstances” instead of pregnant
  • “Quiet place” instead of toilet

The euphemism in the literature

Euphemisms characterize especially the one who uses them. Therefore, they are found in the literature primarily in dialogues . In texts with an omniscient / authorial narrator, they are rare.

By using euphemisms a literary figure, their taboos could be made clear. An open person calls things by name rather than an inhibited personality. Also consideration, mocking attitudes or the ironic view of certain topics can be seen in dialogues on the corresponding euphemisms. Euphemisms in literary dialogue also reveal negative characteristics. This can be flattery, dishonesty or attempts to manipulate other people .

Outside of dialogues, euphemisms characterize figures when scenes are portrayed from their point of view (personal narrative). In literary texts with first-person narrators, euphemisms consistently contribute to the character drawing of the first-person narrator or first-person narrator .

The euphemism in politics and economics

Just as in everyday life, the positive presentation of actually negative facts plays an important role in politics and business. With the help of rhetoric, those responsible can manage to stand up better. Fearful themes and taboos are made more easily digestible by euphemisms (also a euphemism!). Unpleasant circumstances are euphemistically exaggerated. For example, when politicians call for citizens to “take more ownership”, it’s usually a matter of paying them out of their own pockets. In business, upcoming layoffs are often referred to as “freeing personnel.”

Examples of euphemisms in politics

  • “Zero growth” instead of stagnation or stagnation
  • “Soft targets” instead of soldiers or humans
  • »Contribution adjustment« instead of contribution increase
  • “Military conflict” instead of war
  • “Education far away” instead of uneducated
  • “Termination of pregnancy” instead of abortion

Examples of euphemisms in the economy

  • »Equalization of the price structure« instead of more expensive services
  • Facility Manager instead of caretaker
  • »Expandable« instead of malfunctioning
  • “Competitor” instead of competitor
  • ” Expensive ” instead of expensive
  • “Negative growth rates” instead of losses

The euphemism in advertising

Copywriting naturally avoids anxiety-laden topics and taboo subjects and describes the product positively. That is why the stylistic device euphemism is particularly popular here. For example, in advertising for deodorants, there is always talk of “transpiration” and not of someone sweating.

Examples of euphemisms in advertising

  • “Breakfast” instead of chocolate slices with lots of sugar and fat
  • “The third” instead of artificial dentition
  • “Customer information” instead of advertising
  • “Spring of freshness” instead of water
  • Entry-level model instead of limited-function execution
  • “Need less” instead of having to use the toilet more often

Ellipse – Rhetorical stylistic device

Ellipse – the art of omission

The ellipse is a stylistic device that can break the foundations of grammar. Sentence structures which lack elementary components become correct because they are nevertheless understandable and at the same time lighten the text or the speech. Certain parts of a set can be recessed using the ellipse.

The German usage allows this omission, if it concerns redundant words. In the beautiful literature, however, there are also examples of more complex ellipses, which then leave room for interpretation.

What may be missing?

The most common form of the ellipse is to name a word that should be twice in a sentence only once. A phrase like, “You eat the apple, I the pear.” Is now so common that the missing verb barely noticeable. But the omission may go on. “You the apple, I the pear.” Is still understandable, because what else would be eligible for the fruit, if not eating it? However, if you drive the ellipse to the extreme and just say, “You apple, I pear.”, You open up a wide range of interpretation. Has the recipient been given a fruit to eat or merely described his body shape?

But not only the verb may fall victim to the ellipse. In the example sentence: »You may peel the apple, I may eat the apple.«, The second mention of the word apple can be shortened. In this example too, the shortening to an extreme is possible: “You peel, I eat.” This incomplete sentence remains perfectly understandable in the appropriate context. However, it must already be made clear in the environment that this is the apple that is to be peeled and eaten.

What does the ellipse do?

The stylistic device is often used in speeches to make the language sound more verbal. In the written language, the omissions are usually rarely used, which makes the ellipse immediately a more relaxed impression. The language also sounds faster and sweeping with well-chosen ellipses. After all, in most cases it is the redundancy of some words that leads to their deletion.

This momentum is particularly popular in the journalistic field. Titles should sound fast and crisp, which is why a complete sentence grammar is deliberately omitted. An entire text, which is formed exclusively with elliptical sentence structures, sounds hectic, excited and thus also brings a certain importance to the reader. In the telegram style current information is conveyed, which must be transported so hastily that there is no time for correct grammar.

But even the everyday language can be emulated with ellipses well. A sentence like “I car!”, Which is put into the mouth of a protagonist, conveys his social background more clearly than his statement that he owns a car.

Criticism of the use of stylistic device

Image result for writingIn linguistics and literary studies, the use of the ellipse is sometimes viewed critically. Some linguists see an incomplete sentence in the ellipse. Instead of an interesting stylistic device, these experts see a flawed grammar. In the study of elliptic sentences, therefore, the omissions are withdrawn first. If a sentence can not be unambiguously reconstructed, the sentence structure is considered to be incorrect after a strict reading.

Both writers and other friends of the Ellipse hold that completeness in the language is difficult to define anyway. The typical verbal sentence, for example, which was considered complete, is also just one of several variants of a complete sentence. With this attitude to speech, the ellipse is not considered faulty, but efficient. The writer should not ask what he can omit. More important is the question of what must necessarily be said. The context in which a sentence stands is important to the reader’s understanding. In the examination of the sentence, therefore, the context must always be considered.

Incorrect application of the ellipse

As already mentioned, the ellipse can be used in different gradations. “You eat apples and I peel pears.” It is difficult to shorten ellipses. But the binding word “and” can be replaced by a comma or even a dot. The structure is still grammatically correct.

The already mentioned example “You apple, I pear.” Would not be a correct shortening of the sentence. The reader can not possibly tell that two different verbs have been left out. The context, which states that apples and pears can be peeled and eaten, also does not help here. The intelligibility is the top priority.

Assonance – Rhetorical Styles

What is an assonance?

Image result for assonanceAssonance is a stylistic device and denotes the linguistic consonance of two or more words. The phonetic agreement is based on an accumulation or repetition of vowels ; Consonants are ignored. The term assonance is derived from the Latin verb »assonare« (hint, tune in).

Well-known assonances in everyday use

  • J a hr and a T g
  • R a ng and n a men
  • G e n e b and e N e n hm

Like the related alliteration , the assonance is a sound figure . Sound figures serve the acoustic design of texts. In literature, they play a role in poetry , but also appear in other genres. Because they are well anchored in memory, they are often used in colloquialisms and in advertising .

Assessment of assonance in the literature

In lyric poetry we understand a certain form of rhyme, the so-called vocal half-rhyme . This is a sound match of the senders, which is generated exclusively by the vowels used. For this reason, assonance has for a long time been described in German literature as an “impure” or “incomplete” rhyme.

Since Romance languages ​​contain a particularly large number of vowels, the use of assonance in Romansh literature is much more common than in German. In Spanish literature, for example, assonance has always been considered equivalent to “pure” final rhyme.

Revaluation of the assonance in the romance

In German literature, a rethinking took place only since the epoch of Romanticism. This is due, on the one hand, to numerous translations of Romance literature by eminent poets of Romanticism. Through his involvement with Calderón discovered z. For example, Ludwig Tieck used assonance as a means of design and translated it into German in his translations.

Example of assonances translated into German:

“Oh S o hn how horrible howling
Lament up from the m oo r the U nk e !
Do you hear w o St. cawing ravens?
The ghosts in the St warmth u? ”
Ludwig Tieck, The characters in the forest, 1801

On the other hand, the Assonanz with the folk song collection “Des Knaben Wunderhorn” (1805-1808) by Achim von Arnim and Clemens Brentano “salonfähig” made, as it often occurs in orally traditional lyrics .

The harmony of the vowels does not necessarily have to appear at the sender. In Eduard Morike’s Jägerlied (1838) they appear in the middle of the line, especially in the third verse.

Example of an assonance in the middle of the middle of a poem:

“Z ie rlich of the bird is stepping in the snow,
When he walks up the mountain heights:
Z he writes NATURAL L ie bchens l ie be hand
Writes a br ie flein m i r distant country. ”
Eduard Mörike, hunter song, 1838

The assonance in the lyrics of the modern age

Image result for writingAssonances contribute in poems to a certain tonal atmosphere, a basic mood such. For example, “dark,” “bright,” “hard,” or “gentle.” That is why they are still a popular stylistic device, even in the poetry of the 20th and 21st centuries.

Examples of Assonances in Modern Poetry:

1. Connection of the senders of two stanzas by assonance:

“He came from november. the hail br a CHT e
him down. all the water on the fl u g e ln
the seams and a grate gußf o rm

hanging in the rain to which they wind k a e ppt
and he then to the disc suggested as a b l e u g
who snaps out of his castle. the ah o rn ”
Raoul Schrott, Physical Optics I, 1996

2. »ia« -Assessance within a verse:

“But hosi a nna, you Börsi a ne!”
Kurt Drawert, Idyll backwards, 2011

3. “A” -assance in verse verse, “U” -assurance at the end:

“The n ä chtliche to u ns:
a woodpecker proposes ä gt a fir w u nd ”
Sina Klein, cocoon, 2014

The assonance in rap

Sound figures such as the Assonanz move linguistics more than other rhetorical stylistic devices in the vicinity of the music. The vowels, not the consonants, are actually sung in songs. That is why assonances perform better in spoken and sung speech than in written text. This explains not only the above-mentioned accumulation of vocal half rhymes in the folk song. Also in the rap is worked with assonances; often with great skill and a pronounced sense of language, especially in the so-called »fun rap«.

Example of assonances in rap:

“And he so rap’s just ne M o d e o g dr ‘s
So ‘ne ascent and descent, so’ T ne o r o n e bl e
Rotation ‘n clip with ten bitches o b e n o h n e
And hold on to a couple of h o m o ph o b e m o n o l o g e . ”
Dendemann, Ersoichso Lyrics

The rapper Dendemann quotes in the above example the attitude of a record boss. Fabian Wolbring argues that Dendemann consciously creates a contrast between form and content. The record boss is of the opinion that rap is a superficial fad. The artful rhyming construction with numerous sophisticated assonances proves exactly the opposite. She thus undermines the statement that is transported through her – a virtuoso way of exposing herself. [1]

The assonance in advertising

The accumulation of equal vowels or double sounds makes a text particularly memorable. That is why copywriters like to use the effect of assonances.

Examples of assonances in advertising:

  • »L ei sition from L ei sschaft«
    German bank

  • “We l ie Ben K i no”
    CinemaxX

  • “Dr egg, tw o, ei ns … m ei ns”
    eBay

  • »Media M a rct. St a rk! ”
    Media market

  • “A ll a ther ka nn w a rten”
    spunk

Association of Assonance and Alliteration:

  • ” I ‘d like a B i t!”
    Bitburger

  • “With G u tfried it gets us g u t”
    Gutfried

  • “The egg nzig W a hre: W a rst egg ner”
    Warsteiner

  • “M a men m a g m a n just”
    Men

  • “G ei z is g ei l”
    Saturn

The assonance in colloquial idioms

Many know the phenomenon that texts are easier to memorize in connection with a melody. Likewise, texts that work with many sound figures are easier to get into our collective voice memory. So it is not surprising that many commonly used phrases of everyday life contain assonances.

Narration – Literary Texts

Narratives as own text genre

The story is probably one of the oldest genres in literature. Still, defining a narrative is not easy. On the basis of certain characteristics and properties, this text form can be outlined quite accurately. Together with some examples, this gives a very accurate picture of the nature of a narrative.

The narrative – attempt a definition

The term is essentially described in the narrative theory (narratology) with the description of events. These can be retold events or invented events. The narrative follows a certain chronological sequence. The story can be presented verbally or in writing. The form of a narrative knows four different perspectives. In the case of the authorial narration, the narrator already knows all the events, in a neutral narrative the narrator has no relation to the events described. The first-person narrator reports on what he has experienced and the personal narrative describes the narrative from the observer’s perspective. Even the method of narration is an essential feature of the stories. Here, a distinction is made between a summarized, a retrospective and a decidedly extended (time-destroying) narrative method.

Because these features also apply to other types of text of the epic, the actual narrative is delimited from the anecdote, the novella or the short story by a few additional criteria.

Components of narratives

In narratology, a narrative often follows a fixed and chronological structure (introduction, main part, conclusion).

introduction

The introduction serves to determine the respective narrative form and the perspective. In addition, the temporal perspective (praetorium or present tense) already appears in the introduction to the narrative. Furthermore, the introduction clarifies some of the circumstances and questions that are important to understanding the narrative. Readers or listeners are informed about the location and time of the following events, about the persons involved and about possible histories.

Superlatives (powerful adjectives and verbs), but no exaggerations, are often used as stylistic devices to arouse the interest of readers and listeners. The introduction of a narrative thus serves as information and is at the same time the basis for the so-called tension arc which is yet to follow.

Bulk

The main part has essentially two tasks. It contains the actual events that need to be reported. It will answer other questions that are important for understanding the following events. The main part drives the actual action and reports on current situations. Furthermore, the activities of the persons involved are explained, their behavior is clarified and the consequences of the trade are described. Even the portrayal of emotional states and ways of thinking can be found in the main part of a narrative. Flashbacks that may be necessary for understanding are often presented in the form of dreams, memories or letters. And finally, the main part also informs about the consequences that arise for all involved from the described events.

The second task of the main part is the further construction of the voltage arc. For this purpose, the basic events from the introduction are taken up and continued. The interest in the narrative is further increased, which increases the curiosity of readers and listeners (ideally) massively. At the end of the main part, the tension of the narrative has reached its climax.

ending

The conclusion of a narrative can include two options. In most narratives, the previously constructed tension or conflict is resolved. In the case also about possible consequences of the narrated for the involved ones are reported. Even an unexpected end of the story can complete a narrative.

Alternatively, narrative theory also has narrations with an open degree. Here the reader or the listener is invited to his own interpretation of the events and their consequences.

Distinctions to other types of text

To categorize a narrative within the epic, some features may serve as an aid. Though narratives contain complex actions, a fixed timeframe, and defined characters, in comparison to a novel narratives are less extensive and less detailed. In terms of scope, the narrative thus stands between the novel and a short story. Furthermore, a narrative often describes a continuous action, while a novella mainly lives on surprises or news. The linking of persons and the main event takes precedence in the novella, while the narrative offers as comprehensible a description as possible. In addition, the novella often focuses only on essential facts, while the narrative also includes emotions, the environment, and conclusions of the plot.

Examples from the centuries

Among the first surviving narratives are the fables of Aesop. With stories like “The sun and the wind” or “The fox and the grapes” the poet already coined in 600 BC. Chr. The genre of the story. In the Middle Ages, religious themes were the focus of attention. The “Gesta Romanorum” is a collection of sagas and fairy tales from the 13th century with Christian character. Friedrich Schiller has also written numerous narratives in addition to dramas, poems and ballads. Among his best-known works of this type of text are: “A Magnanimous Act” (1782), “The Ghostseer” (1788) or (in the broader sense) the Diderot translation “Strange Example of a Female Revenge”.

In the recent past, for example, “Mr. and Dog” by Thomas Mann from 1918 should be mentioned. Important representatives of the 20th century are also Dieter Wellershoff, Botho Strauss and Patrick Süskind.

Furthermore, a distinction can be made today between different country-specific and regional narratives.

Characteristics of a short story – scope, content, language

cksideWhat is a short story?

The short story is a young literary genre from the 20th century. It forms a subgenus of the epic ; because of its small size, it is one of the small epic forms. The term is a loan translation from English. The story comes from the short story in the American short story .

Characteristics of a short story

The main features

  • Direct entry into an everyday situation
  • A description of a conflict that is not resolved
  • Open end, from which the reader can think further
  • Just a storyline
  • Accelerated storytelling speed
  • Precise, concise language, often colloquial

scope

Located between short novel, novella and anecdote, the short story is characterized by a small amount of text. Sometimes it covers only one or two pages, but it can also be much longer. Because of its length alone, it can not always be distinguished from a narrative.

content

The staff (characters) of a short story is limited to one or a few main characters. These are ordinary people and are often typed. You are in a decision situation that leads to a conflict. This sometimes leads to a surprising turn.

The event captures a short period in the life of the protagonists; Sometimes flashbacks or foresight come up. The everyday happenings focus on one moment and point to universal truths. Often the content of a short story is fantastic or scary.

construction

Characteristic of a short story is the unmediated opening: the reader is set in one sentence in the middle of an already started event. The course of action of the short story is straightforward. The narrative tempo is accelerated, the narrated time experiences a compression. The end is often surprising, but the outcome of the story always remains open.

Examples of direct entry

  • “The woman was leaning against the window and looking over.”
    Ilse Aichinger: “The Window Theater”. From: IA, The Tied Up, Fischer, 1953
  • “We lived on the third floor in the middle of the city and have never been guilty of anything. We also had years of friendship with Dörfelts from across the way, until the wife borrowed our frying pan and did not bring it back shortly before the feast.”
    Gerhard Zwerenz: “Do not let everything please …” From: GZ, Gesänge in the market. Fantastic stories and love songs, Kiepenheuer & Witsch, 1962

language

The language of the short story underscores its closeness to reality. It is simple and unaffected and focused on the essentials. The sentence structure is precise and concise. The tone is often colloquial, especially in verbal speech.

Reference to the reader

The short story is aimed at a broad readership by publishing in magazines and magazines. It picks up on current topics that often stem from the reader’s everyday or experiential world. This offers him the opportunity to identify. The illumination of a single everyday moment corresponds to the lack of commitment of modern times. The open form does not dictate anything, but leaves the reader room for their own thoughts. The short story asks the reader to interpret. In the narrative, he can find the essence of life.

Development of the short story

prewar

One pioneer of the German short story , for example, is Johann Peter Hebel with his calendar stories (“Schatzkästlein der Rheinischen Hausfreunde”, 1811). Approaches can also be found in Heinrich von Kleist (“The beggar woman of Locarno”, 1810), ETA Hoffmann and Hebbel.

Like the short story in America, the short story in Germany arose in connection with the requirements of magazines and magazines : Was previously the gregarious reading of short stories cared for, you needed in an accelerated period from about 1920 a short read for the hurried single reader.

Authors of German short stories in the prewar period

  • Alfred Döblin (1878-1957)
  • Leonhard Frank (1882-1961)
  • Heinrich Mann (1871-1950)
  • Robert Musil (1880-1942)
  • Walter Serner (1889-1942)

time after war

In the post-war period, the short story after American model in Germany became very popular. The experience of the Second World War led to a break with old narrative traditions . One was suspicious of large literary forms such as the novel. The reader did not want to be explained to the world by a supposedly omniscient narrator. Small clippings of reality and subjective experiences in short stories, however, seemed credible.

Conversely, the laconic, concise language was particularly suitable for the contents of post-war literature. It seemed appropriate to portray experiences such as persecution and imprisonment. Between 1945 and 1965 short stories were first of all style exercises of a new, ideology-free German literature, then an examination of the past, the existential need of the present or the economic miracle.

Later, the political conditions in the Federal Republic were discussed, interpersonal relationships, alienation and communication disorders. But already at the beginning of the 1970s , the short story had reached its peak in Germany. Novels, tales or hybrids of the Kurzepik came to the fore.

Well-known German short stories from the post-war period

  • “Felix” by Hans Bender (1919-2015)
  • “San Salvador”, 1964, by Peter Bichsel (born 1935)
  • »Wanderer, are you coming to Spa …«, 1950, by Heinrich Böll (1917-1985)
  • »The Bread«, 1946, by Wolfgang Borchert (1921-1947)
  • »The Great Wildenberg«, by Siegfried Lenz (1926-2014)
  • »The Fat Kid«, 1952, by Marie Luise Kaschnitz (1901-1974)
  • “Jeno was my friend”, 1958, by Wolfdietrich Schnurre (1920-1989)

Short story and short story

The English-American Short Story was written around 1820. The blossoming of magazines and magazines took a short epic form. Many of the authors were both journalists and writers. The short story met the demands of modern man. The everyday gear increasingly lacked the time for longer reading.

The world’s first short stories included “Tales of the Grotesque and Arabesques” by Edgar Allan Poe (1840). Poe was also the one who requires a “letter tale” to be precise. It should not contain anything that does not serve the purpose of narrative. Above all, she must be able to read all at once in order to develop her artistic effect. [1]

Short story

Founder of the American short story at the beginning of the 19th century:

  • Washington Irving (1783-1859)
  • Nathaniel Hawthorne (1804-1864)
  • Edgar Allan Poe (1809-1849)

Authors of short stories from the middle of the 19th century (selection):

  • Mark Twain (1835-1910)
  • Jack London (1876-1916)
  • Ambrose Bierce (1842-1914)

Well-known authors of short stories in the 20th century:

  • William Faulkner (1897-1962)
  • Ernest Hemingway (1899-1961)