Neologism – Rhetorical stylistic devices

What is a neologism?

Image result for neologismNeologism is the term used to describe new words, new words or new meaning. Neologisms are part of every living language. At the same time, neologism is one of the basic stylistic devices in literature: in particular, it can underline the originality of a text. The advertising also uses new words to address the consumer in a targeted and unmistakable manner.

  • Ostalgia = yearning for life in the GDR, formed from East (Germany) and nostalgia
  • Newspeak = the language adapted for political purposes in George Orwell’s dystopian novel »1984«
  • April Fresische = loud self-promotion since the 1960s, the smell of the fabric softener »Lenor«

term origin

The term neologism can be derived from the Greek néos = new and lógos = word. The definition is so neologism or a new word.

Where do neologisms come from?

In general, neologisms fill in linguistic gaps: they arise in a language community wherever a thing, a circumstance, a feeling, or something like that. can not or insufficiently named using known terms. Neologisms can also express things in a simplified way, or transfer words that already exist to new situations (a well-known example of a linguistic reprinting is »surfing«).

1. Youth language

The youth language is one of the most important sources of new words or reinterpretations. Since 2008, Langenscheidt-Verlag uses a (controversial) survey to determine the youth word of the year.

  • Hartzen = actually: live by Hartz IV; Meanwhile, the verb is also used as a synonym for idle or laze; Youth Word of the Year 2009
  • chill = relax, relax
  • Smombie = someone who focuses all his attention on his smartphone and, like a zombie, does not notice anything of his surroundings; Youth Word of the Year 2015

2. Foreign languages

The German language contains numerous words that have their origin in English. Camping is such a word – it was in 1941 for the first time in Duden. 50 years later, in 1991, the laptop was included in the German dictionaries. In some recent new words the (Germanized) Anglicism is even more noticeable.

  • trade = trade; trading on the stock exchange (with securities)
  • Insider trading = trades where investors use information that is not publicly available for economic gain
  • flashing = inspiring; the word originally comes from the musical jargon; You can also be “flashed” by an unusual encounter or a great present
  • fluffy = light, airy, fluffy; can refer to a cake as well as a hairstyle, for example

From the so-called Kiezdeutsch of young people with a migrant background, Arabisms also find their way into the German language.

  • yalla = fast
  • Cho = brother

3. Digitization

Digitalisation brought its own terms – mostly from English: words such as »download«, »swiping« or »liken« are firmly rooted in everyday life today. Particularly interesting is the emergence of independent verbs in the wake of Internet services.

  • Googling = researching on the Internet with a search engine, mostly Google®, founded in 1998
  • tweeting = publishing Twitter messages (tweets) via the Twitter® platform, founded in 2006
  • Tindern = get to know people by using the dating app for the smartphone Tinder®, founded in 2012

4. Society, politics and science

The ever-changing world needs and invents new words in all areas. Developments in technology, in medicine and psychology or in economics and politics are accompanied by a change of language.

  • Deceleration or decelerate = an ever faster development, activity o. Ä. deliberately slow down (his everyday life, family life, the financial markets)
  • Event gastronomy = a restaurant or other gastronomic business offering artistic performances in addition to the actual food
  • Loyalty card = a card valid for a long period of time, which the company issues to a customer, and which grants it different purchasing benefits
  • Grexit , Brexit = Case words from the first letters of an EU country, in the example Greece (Greece) or Great Britain (Britain) and the English word for exit exit, which mean leaving the EU

5. Advertising

Occasionally, terms that have been invented by creative copywriters to focus attention on a particular product are coming out of their tight context. They are then also used as neologism in “normal life”.

Well-known examples:

  • pores
    from the advertisement of “Clearasil” (especially thorough)
  • april fresh
    from the advertisement of »Lenor« (springlike lightness and freshness)
  • unbreakable
    from advertising (for packaging that is indestructible)
  • have the tiger in the tank
    from the Esso advertisement (means a car or a person that is particularly strong, fast or powerful)

Neologisms dictionary

Image result for writingIn the year 2004 volume 11 of the writings of the institute for German language appeared. It is a big dictionary with neologisms. The authors have collected about 700 new wordings that found their way into the German general language in the 1990s.

A small volume from Duden-Verlag introduces (original) neologisms under the title: »Our Words of the Decade«, which were added to the Duden vocabulary between 2000 and 2010. These included, for example, “Chai Latte”, “Alcopop”, “E-learning” or “talent-free”.

How are neologisms formed?

Neologisms come about in different ways. The theory of language, an area of ​​literary science, has investigated this. Usually neologisms arise

  • by composition (= composition) of independent words, for example »Dosenpfand« or »Genmais«;
  • by derivation of new words from an original word using an affix, for example “cybercrime” or “cybersex”;
  • by abbreviation , for example »SMS«, »Zivi« or »FAQs«;
  • by contraction of existing known elements, for example »teleworkplace«;
  • through the Germanization of foreign words, for example »escapism« (escapism), »download«, »update« or »liken«;
  • By shifting the meaning of meaning : A “purpose” was originally a nail; today, according to Duden, it denotes “the motive and goal of an action.”

Criticizing the language change in everyday life

The language change is critically accompanied by several institutions. The Society for German Language (GfdS) is an association funded by the Conference of Ministers of Education. He is committed to the care of the German language. In addition, he explores the changing language and makes recommendations for language use. Since 1971, the GfdS has chosen a “word of the year”. In 2016, neologism was “post-fatal” (= according to the facts, the term describes a time in which feelings or “perceived truths” become more important than facts or the truth itself).

The association “German Language” is much more vociferously lamenting the decline of the German language and, for example, vehemently defending itself against the entry of anglicisms. But since language is a reflection of social change, a change of language can not be stopped by anything.

Neologism in literature

Neologism is one of the basic stylistic-rhetorical devices in literature. Writers use him to

  • to differentiate the literary language from everyday language;
  • to emphasize the own and unmistakable style;
  • to nuance the meaning of a statement or text;
  • to have a fantastic language content in science fiction or fantasy literature.

Examples from the poetry:

“O taumelbunte Welt”
from Hermann Hesse’s poem “Transience” (1919)

“If […] you appear to us on the earth’s sky ,
Our beautiful future Morning red! «
from Hermann Hesse’s poem “Peace” (1914)

»I woke up so happy «
from the poem “Morgenwonne” by Joachim Ringelnatz

“The corridor is pollinated with ash seed .”
from Gottfried Keller’s poem “Land in the autumn” (1879)

Examples from the prose:

” Half and half god ”
from Hermann Hesse’s novel »Steppenwolf« (1927)

“I play ‘chess in the truest sense of the word, while the others, the real chess players, chess’ earnestly ‘ to introduce a daring new word into the German language.”
from Stefan Zweig’s “Schachnovelle” (1942)
The unusual thing about this example is that Stefan Zweig refers the reader to neologism extra.

Examples from science fiction and fantasy:

” Newspeak ”
from George Orwell’s dystopian novel 1984 (1948)

“Newspeak” is the official language of the fictitious state of Oceania and the generic term under which Orwell introduces other neologisms such as Engsoz, Gedankendelikt, or Doppeldenk.

» Zamonia «
from Walter Moers’ novel »The Thirteen and a Half Years of Captain Bluebear«
In his novel series from the fictional Zamonien, Walter Moers describes a whole universe with the help of neologisms. As an example, the “booklings” (a form of existence that reveres books), the “terrors” (terrible creatures that have alleged properties of witches) or the “ormen” (a guessing game).

The neologism in advertising

Advertising is designed to draw the attention of potential customers to a particular product. In doing so, creativity in dealing with language is required. Advertising is therefore a rich source of language creation .

  • Discover the new plant life (Rama margarine)
  • NOVOTEL is an artificial word from Novus (Latin: new) and hotel
  • Best Ager = Target group that is considered particularly demanding and consumer friendly

The advertising industry is not just constantly inventing new terms to influence people and markets. Also found frequently are new words . In doing so, familiar words are reassembled to create positive associations in the consumer.

  • Cuddle wool (detergent Perwoll)
  • crispy (Duplo chocolate bar)
  • The Media Markt markets invite you for early shopping (just a bargain for breakfast)

Differentiation from other stylistic devices

Archaism as the opposite of neologism

Every living language is subject to natural change: new concepts emerge while others disappear from the language. Language changes not only by neologisms, but also by their opposite, the archaisms. An archaism refers to a linguistic expression that has become unfashionable . He comes from another time and is uncommon nowadays. The Duden characterizes such concepts as linguistically obsolete or obsolete .

Examples of archaisms:

  • Fried fish:
    (obsolete) for teenage girls
  • Wickelkind:
    (obsolete) for child
  • uncle
    (obsolete) for uncle
  • pupil:
    (obsolete) for child, pupil

Occasionalism as possible precursor of a neologism

Occasionalism is a concept of opportunity that is formed, so to speak, out of state and in relation to the situation . For example, an infant who always drinks too hastily and spits out some of the milk is affectionately called a “small spit” by his parents.

If the term were to spread to other parents and later to society, “occultism” could turn “spitting” into a neologism. This could then even pass into the general usage.

However, once established in the language, strictly speaking, it should no longer be called neologism. New word formation can thus usually be viewed only in a fixed temporal context.

Metonymy – Rhetorical stylistic devices

What is a metonymy? (Definition)

Metonymy is a stylistic device that belongs to the tropics . As with all tropics, the terms used are replaced by others. The improper objects are in immediate, real proximity to the intended ones. The limit of the intended object is thus shifted.

What are tropics?

Tropics is the generic term for a number of stylistic devices . In a trope (also: Tropus) is always an improper and pictorial expression. The meaning is not directly formulated, but replaced by another linguistic phrase. This comes either from the immediate vicinity or from another area of ​​imagination. It is used to make what is said more vivid and lively or to decorate a speech.

The term derives from the Greek tropos = turn . Even in Greek antiquity, tropics were popular as a means of rhetoric or stylistics. They were separated from each other and individually defined. The tropics include allegory , antonomatism, emphasis, euphemism , hyperbole , irony , catachesis (dead metaphor), Litotes , Metalepse, metaphor , metonymy, periphrase, personification , riddles, sarcasm, and synekdoche .

The term derives from the Greek metonymia = name swap (from meta = to and onyma = name).

Examples

  • ” The mustache comes in.” – Instead of a man who enters the room, only his mustache is called. Part of him replaces the whole man.
  • ” The left corner, please.” – When a teacher calls a student like that, it does not mean the corner. Instead of the space content, the room is called.
  • “Let’s have a drink.” – It’s not the vessel, it’s the content, like beer or wine.

Relationship and differences to the metaphor

Metonymy is closely related to the metaphor. In metaphor, the picture is based on a comparability of different spheres of meaning. In the metaphor , the original and the new word are thus in a relationship of similarity .

A metaphor for …

  • Stupidity: donkey
  • dying: going home or falling asleep
  • be in love: have spring fever

A metonymy for …

  • Stupidity: brainlessness
  • die: go to the grave
  • be in love: have weak knees

Unlike the metaphor, metonyms therefore do not search for the substitute word in a different sphere than the source word. Instead, a metonymy replaces the source word with a term that is in a real relationship to it. This relationship can be temporal, spatial or logical. The initial word and the substitute word can originate from the same world of experience and belong to the material, sensible reality.

example

    Political journalism is sometimes called the “White House” when referring to the US President or the US government. Because the President of the United States resides with his family in the White House in Washington, there is a concrete spatial relationship between source word and replacement word.

Original and new concepts in metonymy are therefore related to each other (contiguity).

Possible affiliation relationships

Image result for writingThe type of membership of output word and replacement word can be further specified and classified. Linguists distinguish numerous groups of contexts according to the pattern: “X stands for Y”. The transitions between the groups are occasionally fluid, as are the transitions to the metaphor.

1. person stands for thing / content:

Examples

  • “Our teacher wants us to read Schiller.” (Schiller = Schiller’s books or works)
  • »He knows the Beatles like no one else« (the Beatles = the music of the Beatles)

2nd place stands for person (s):

Examples

  • »Brazil play Portugal.« (Brazil = Brazilian player / team, Portugal = Portuguese player / team)
  • “Rome chooses a new government.” (Rome = the citizens of Rome)

3. Time stands for person (s):

Examples

  • »The Renaissance rediscovered the cultural achievements of Greek and Roman antiquity.« (Renaissance = renaissance artists, artists of the Renaissance)
  • “The post-war period did not care about the traumatized, but was busy with the reconstruction.” (Post-war period = people of the post-war period, survivors of the war)

4. Vessel stands for content:

Examples

  • “He devoured his plate greedily.” (Plate = meal, meal)
  • “She drinks two cups every afternoon.” (Two cups = two cups of coffee)

5. Deity stands for its attributed properties and functions:

Examples

  • “Gaia will soon be completely destroyed.” (Gaia = Greek goddess of the earth, thus stands for the planet Earth)
  • “Fortuna was well-intentioned to the athlete.” (Fortuna = Roman goddess of fortune and fortune, so in the example of luck and success)

6th episode stands for cause:

Examples

  • “Pale death” (not death is pale, but the dead)
  • “The pale fear” (not the fear is pale, but the fearful)

7. Cause is the result:

Examples

  • »The sun illuminates the hall.« (Sun = light of the sun)
  • »Winter causes heating costs to rise again« (winter = cold)

8. Abstract is concretum:

Examples

  • ” Young people are hardly interested in classical literature anymore.” (Youth = young people)
  • »The good taste is at home in France« (the good taste = people with good taste)

9. Material represents subject:

Examples

  • “I prefer to wear wool rather than cotton.” (Wool or cotton = wool or cotton clothing)
  • “He read the paper in peace.” (Paper = writing)

Part 10 stands for the whole (Latin: Pars pro toto):

Examples

  • “A 100-soul village” (soul = person or inhabitant)
  • »He counted 70 Lenze« (Lenz = year)

Delimitation to Synekdoche

The synekdoche is also a trope. She is closely related to metonymy. The transitions are flowing. A clear demarcation is often not possible. The Synekdoche also denotes a special membership relationship between the output word and the replacement word. The replacement word always has the same conceptual content in Synekdoche.

Within the term field, a distinction is made according to the scope . Therefore, “Pars pro toto” (see above) can also be considered as a form of synekdoche. Sometimes this improper figure of speech, in which a part stands for the whole, is even referred to as an independent stylistic device.

Examples

  • »At home five hungry mouths are waiting for him.« (Maul = child)
  • “Give us our daily bread today.” (Bread = food, means of life)

Metaphor – Rhetorical Styles

What is a metaphor? (Definition)

The stylistic metaphor belongs to the tropics: the actual word is replaced by a pictorial expression from another world of concepts. A metaphor is therefore not always clear. It has to be interpreted. Although metaphors can be explained by paraphrasing, some of their impact and / or meaning may be lost.

What are tropics?

Tropics is the generic term for a number of stylistic devices . In a trope (also: Tropus) is always an improper and pictorial expression. The meaning is not directly formulated, but replaced by another linguistic phrase. This comes either from the immediate vicinity or from another area of ​​imagination. It is used to make what is said more vivid and lively or to decorate a speech.

The term derives from the Greek tropos = turn . Even in Greek antiquity, tropics were popular as a means of rhetoric or stylistics. They were separated from each other and individually defined. The tropics include allegory , antonomatism, emphasis, euphemism , hyperbole , irony , catachesis (dead metaphor), Litotes , Metalepse, metaphor, metonymy , periphrase, personification , riddles, sarcasm, and synekdoche .

The famous ancient Greek philosopher and naturalist Aristotle (384 – 322 BC) founded the term metaphorá in his works »Rhetoric« and »Poetics«. Translated, it means transmission (from Greek metà phérein = carry elsewhere).

Examples

  • “Life Clock”
    Here, the clock is transmitted as a device for measuring time on the course of human life .
  • “broken heart”
    We talk about a “broken heart” when someone has a big heartache. Here a damaged part of the body is used as a symbol of painful emotions ; both conceptual worlds flow together in this way.

How are metaphors formed?

Metaphors are created by

  • an analogy in the outer form (for example, “Glimmerstängel” – a cigarette reminiscent of the stem of a plant);
  • a similar function (eg »chair leg« – the piece of furniture stands on wooden sticks like humans and animals on their legs);
  • the merging of ideas (eg “song of the waves” – the sound of the water is reminiscent of music).

Unconscious and conscious metaphors

Many metaphors have become an integral part of our everyday language over time. We use it unconsciously . The use of some such symbols is even necessary , as there are no other names for the subject. They fill in gaps in the language. Such a word is also called a dead metaphor or catachrese (from Greek katachresis = abuse), because a transmission of meaning does not take place.

Dead metaphors

  • “Bottleneck”
  • “Spine”
  • “Letterhead”
  • “Fluency”
  • “Table leg”
  • “Bonnet”

The unconscious metaphors include those images that have faded through frequent use. Although other names could be found for them, but the use of the symbols has become a habit. The metaphor is thus a synonym for the other term .

Faded metaphors

  • »Kaderschmiede« (= elite university)
  • “Broken heart” (= heartache)
  • »Glittering party« (= exuberant party)
  • »Eagle eyes« (= very good eyesight)
  • »Hangover breakfast« (= meal that is supposed to drive off the effects of drinking alcohol)
  • “War weariness” (= lack of will to continue to wage war)

On the other hand, there is the conscious, real metaphor . It is used specifically to achieve a specific effect. Such a transfer is absolutely new. The audience is surprised by the pictorial expression.

Conscious metaphors

  • »The European House« (from architecture)
  • »Foundation of society« (from construction / architecture)
  • “Flame of the Spirit” (from the everyday world)
  • »Meltdown in the banking system« (from nuclear physics)
  • »Stream of Life« (from geography / topography)

The metaphor in epic, lyric and drama

In all three forms of literature, metaphorics plays a key role as a rhetorical figure. In addition to metaphors familiar to everyday readers, translated terms are often created by the author. These terms are therefore initially unknown. The context of meaning is easy or difficult to grasp depending on prior knowledge. If the interpretation succeeds, metaphors contribute to the understanding of the text. The clear description creates the opportunity to better understand what is meant without elaborate explanations. In particular, the emotional meaning can be detected more easily.

A well-understood metaphor makes a text easy to read, entertaining and memorable. If their purpose is to decrypt only with difficulty, the text becomes difficult to understand.

Examples

  • “Knights of the napkins”
    Thomas Mann: “Mario and the Wizard”
  • “Last Homestead of Feeling”
    Rainer Maria Rilke: “Exposed on the mountains of the heart”
  • “Dear Torch”
    Friedrich Schiller: “Maria Stuart”

The metaphor in poetry and modernity

Image result for writingMetaphors increase the poetics of texts by drawing pictures with words. An example would be the »clean sky«. In a poetry analysis, the interpretation of metaphors plays an important role.

Examples

  • “The angel who conceals himself in you” (Angel stands metaphorically for the beloved)
    Eduard Möricke: “To the Beloved”
  • “A rose-colored spring weather
    Laid on the lovely face « (happiness and love, being in love are reflected on her face)
    Johann Wolfgang von Goethe: “Welcome and farewell”

Modern authors often use metaphors in ways that are difficult or impossible to decode. The incomprehensible picture forces one to pause while reading. Then the textual environment in which the metaphor stands is more important than the meaning of the transmitted expression.

The metaphor in politics and advertising

Metaphors are also popular in political rhetoric . They make speeches memorable and interesting and make pictures in the minds of the audience. In the face of the financial crisis, for example, politicians speak of the “tide change”. As the listeners visualize, a complicated process is easier for them to grasp.

Examples from politics

  • “The climate in the coalition negotiations was good.” (From meteorology)
  • “Scholz wants to continue the course of his predecessor.” (From the sea)
  • »The course is set for a change.« (Out of circulation)

In advertising , metaphors are indispensable because they convey feelings very well. This is helpful to encourage consumers to buy. In addition, the viewer and potential customer remember memorable images and allegorical phrases better than a linguistic statement.

Examples from advertising

  • »Red Bull lends wings .« (Energy Drink)
  • »The yellow angel .« (ADAC)
  • ” You can build on these stones . « (Schwäbisch Hall)

Differentiation to other stylistic devices

Metaphor and comparison

A metaphor can be recognized by the fact that it is used without further explanation or reference words. It speaks for itself, and the reader or listener must open up the relationship between the two conceptual worlds themselves. In a comparison, on the other hand, this connection is represented by words, often by “how.”

Examples of a comparison

  • “The young woman is swift as a deer.”
  • “He rides like the wind.”
  • “The air is as soft as silk.”

Metaphor and metonymy

A metaphor transfers the actual concept into a foreign realm of meaning. There is originally no connection between the two conceptual worlds: metaphor for love = float on clouds . In metonymy, on the other hand, one word stands for a neighboring one: the leather hit the post; Leather = the football. (Here is the material for the object.)

Further examples of a metonymy

  • »Berlin abolishes the property tax.« (Berlin = the Federal Government)
  • “Goethe is on the top left corner of the shelf.” (Goethe = the works or the books of the poet)

Metaphors from different areas

  • “Tops the sea”
  • “creative head”
  • “Wall of Silence”
  • “Fist on the neck” (inevitable threat)
  • “Power of Darkness” (Forces of Evil)
  • “Desert Ship” (picture for a camel)
  • “Ugly duckling” (expression for a little attractive person)
  • »See something through the pink glasses« (to judge something too positively)

Metaphor – Rhetorical Styles

What is a metaphor? (Definition)

The stylistic metaphor belongs to the tropics: the actual word is replaced by a pictorial expression from another world of concepts. A metaphor is therefore not always clear. It has to be interpreted. Although metaphors can be explained by paraphrasing, some of their impact and / or meaning may be lost.

What are tropics?

Tropics is the generic term for a number of stylistic devices . In a trope (also: Tropus) is always an improper and pictorial expression. The meaning is not directly formulated, but replaced by another linguistic phrase. This comes either from the immediate vicinity or from another area of ​​imagination. It is used to make what is said more vivid and lively or to decorate a speech.

The term derives from the Greek tropos = turn . Even in Greek antiquity, tropics were popular as a means of rhetoric or stylistics. They were separated from each other and individually defined. The tropics include allegory , antonomatism, emphasis, euphemism , hyperbole , irony , catachesis (dead metaphor), Litotes , Metalepse, metaphor, metonymy , periphrase, personification , riddles, sarcasm, and synekdoche .

The famous ancient Greek philosopher and naturalist Aristotle (384 – 322 BC) founded the term metaphorá in his works »Rhetoric« and »Poetics«. Translated, it means transmission (from Greek metà phérein = carry elsewhere).

Examples

  • “Life Clock”
    Here, the clock is transmitted as a device for measuring time on the course of human life .
  • “broken heart”
    We talk about a “broken heart” when someone has a big heartache. Here a damaged part of the body is used as a symbol of painful emotions ; both conceptual worlds flow together in this way.

How are metaphors formed?

Metaphors are created by

  • an analogy in the outer form (for example, “Glimmerstängel” – a cigarette reminiscent of the stem of a plant);
  • a similar function (eg »chair leg« – the piece of furniture stands on wooden sticks like humans and animals on their legs);
  • the merging of ideas (eg “song of the waves” – the sound of the water is reminiscent of music).

Unconscious and conscious metaphors

Many metaphors have become an integral part of our everyday language over time. We use it unconsciously . The use of some such symbols is even necessary , as there are no other names for the subject. They fill in gaps in the language. Such a word is also called a dead metaphor or catachrese (from Greek katachresis = abuse), because a transmission of meaning does not take place.

Dead metaphors

  • “Bottleneck”
  • “Spine”
  • “Letterhead”
  • “Fluency”
  • “Table leg”
  • “Bonnet”

The unconscious metaphors include those images that have faded through frequent use. Although other names could be found for them, but the use of the symbols has become a habit. The metaphor is thus a synonym for the other term .

Faded metaphors

  • »Kaderschmiede« (= elite university)
  • “Broken heart” (= heartache)
  • »Glittering party« (= exuberant party)
  • »Eagle eyes« (= very good eyesight)
  • »Hangover breakfast« (= meal that is supposed to drive off the effects of drinking alcohol)
  • “War weariness” (= lack of will to continue to wage war)

On the other hand, there is the conscious, real metaphor . It is used specifically to achieve a specific effect. Such a transfer is absolutely new. The audience is surprised by the pictorial expression.

Conscious metaphors

  • »The European House« (from architecture)
  • »Foundation of society« (from construction / architecture)
  • “Flame of the Spirit” (from the everyday world)
  • »Meltdown in the banking system« (from nuclear physics)
  • »Stream of Life« (from geography / topography)

The metaphor in epic, lyric and drama

In all three forms of literature, metaphorics plays a key role as a rhetorical figure. In addition to metaphors familiar to everyday readers, translated terms are often created by the author. These terms are therefore initially unknown. The context of meaning is easy or difficult to grasp depending on prior knowledge. If the interpretation succeeds, metaphors contribute to the understanding of the text. The clear description creates the opportunity to better understand what is meant without elaborate explanations. In particular, the emotional meaning can be detected more easily.

A well-understood metaphor makes a text easy to read, entertaining and memorable. If their purpose is to decrypt only with difficulty, the text becomes difficult to understand.

Examples

  • “Knights of the napkins”
    Thomas Mann: “Mario and the Wizard”
  • “Last Homestead of Feeling”
    Rainer Maria Rilke: “Exposed on the mountains of the heart”
  • “Dear Torch”
    Friedrich Schiller: “Maria Stuart”

The metaphor in poetry and modernity

Metaphors increase the poetics of texts by drawing pictures with words. An example would be the »clean sky«. In a poetry analysis, the interpretation of metaphors plays an important role.

Examples

  • “The angel who conceals himself in you” (Angel stands metaphorically for the beloved)
    Eduard Möricke: “To the Beloved”
  • “A rose-colored spring weather
    Laid on the lovely face « (happiness and love, being in love are reflected on her face)
    Johann Wolfgang von Goethe: “Welcome and farewell”

Modern authors often use metaphors in ways that are difficult or impossible to decode. The incomprehensible picture forces one to pause while reading. Then the textual environment in which the metaphor stands is more important than the meaning of the transmitted expression.

The metaphor in politics and advertising

Metaphors are also popular in political rhetoric . They make speeches memorable and interesting and make pictures in the minds of the audience. In the face of the financial crisis, for example, politicians speak of the “tide change”. As the listeners visualize, a complicated process is easier for them to grasp.

Examples from politics

  • “The climate in the coalition negotiations was good.” (From meteorology)
  • “Scholz wants to continue the course of his predecessor.” (From the sea)
  • »The course is set for a change.« (Out of circulation)

In advertising , metaphors are indispensable because they convey feelings very well. This is helpful to encourage consumers to buy. In addition, the viewer and potential customer remember memorable images and allegorical phrases better than a linguistic statement.

Examples from advertising

  • »Red Bull lends wings .« (Energy Drink)
  • »The yellow angel .« (ADAC)
  • ” You can build on these stones . « (Schwäbisch Hall)

Differentiation to other stylistic devices

Metaphor and comparison

A metaphor can be recognized by the fact that it is used without further explanation or reference words. It speaks for itself, and the reader or listener must open up the relationship between the two conceptual worlds themselves. In a comparison, on the other hand, this connection is represented by words, often by “how.”

Examples of a comparison

  • “The young woman is swift as a deer.”
  • “He rides like the wind.”
  • “The air is as soft as silk.”

Metaphor and metonymy

A metaphor transfers the actual concept into a foreign realm of meaning. There is originally no connection between the two conceptual worlds: metaphor for love = float on clouds . In metonymy, on the other hand, one word stands for a neighboring one: the leather hit the post; Leather = the football. (Here is the material for the object.)

Further examples of a metonymy

  • »Berlin abolishes the property tax.« (Berlin = the Federal Government)
  • “Goethe is on the top left corner of the shelf.” (Goethe = the works or the books of the poet)

Metaphors from different areas

  • “Tops the sea”
  • “creative head”
  • “Wall of Silence”
  • “Fist on the neck” (inevitable threat)
  • “Power of Darkness” (Forces of Evil)
  • “Desert Ship” (picture for a camel)
  • “Ugly duckling” (expression for a little attractive person)
  • »See something through the pink glasses« (to judge something too positively)

Metaphor – Rhetorical Styles

What is a metaphor? (Definition)

The stylistic metaphor belongs to the tropics: the actual word is replaced by a pictorial expression from another world of concepts. A metaphor is therefore not always clear. It has to be interpreted. Although metaphors can be explained by paraphrasing, some of their impact and / or meaning may be lost.

What are tropics?

Tropics is the generic term for a number of stylistic devices . In a trope (also: Tropus) is always an improper and pictorial expression. The meaning is not directly formulated, but replaced by another linguistic phrase. This comes either from the immediate vicinity or from another area of ​​imagination. It is used to make what is said more vivid and lively or to decorate a speech.

The term derives from the Greek tropos = turn . Even in Greek antiquity, tropics were popular as a means of rhetoric or stylistics. They were separated from each other and individually defined. The tropics include allegory , antonomatism, emphasis, euphemism , hyperbole , irony , catachesis (dead metaphor), Litotes , Metalepse, metaphor, metonymy , periphrase, personification , riddles, sarcasm, and synekdoche .

The famous ancient Greek philosopher and naturalist Aristotle (384 – 322 BC) founded the term metaphorá in his works »Rhetoric« and »Poetics«. Translated, it means transmission (from Greek metà phérein = carry elsewhere).

Examples

  • “Life Clock”
    Here, the clock is transmitted as a device for measuring time on the course of human life .
  • “broken heart”
    We talk about a “broken heart” when someone has a big heartache. Here a damaged part of the body is used as a symbol of painful emotions ; both conceptual worlds flow together in this way.

How are metaphors formed?

Metaphors are created by

  • an analogy in the outer form (for example, “Glimmerstängel” – a cigarette reminiscent of the stem of a plant);
  • a similar function (eg »chair leg« – the piece of furniture stands on wooden sticks like humans and animals on their legs);
  • the merging of ideas (eg “song of the waves” – the sound of the water is reminiscent of music).

Unconscious and conscious metaphors

Many metaphors have become an integral part of our everyday language over time. We use it unconsciously . The use of some such symbols is even necessary , as there are no other names for the subject. They fill in gaps in the language. Such a word is also called a dead metaphor or catachrese (from Greek katachresis = abuse), because a transmission of meaning does not take place.

Dead metaphors

  • “Bottleneck”
  • “Spine”
  • “Letterhead”
  • “Fluency”
  • “Table leg”
  • “Bonnet”

The unconscious metaphors include those images that have faded through frequent use. Although other names could be found for them, but the use of the symbols has become a habit. The metaphor is thus a synonym for the other term .

Faded metaphors

  • »Kaderschmiede« (= elite university)
  • “Broken heart” (= heartache)
  • »Glittering party« (= exuberant party)
  • »Eagle eyes« (= very good eyesight)
  • »Hangover breakfast« (= meal that is supposed to drive off the effects of drinking alcohol)
  • “War weariness” (= lack of will to continue to wage war)

On the other hand, there is the conscious, real metaphor . It is used specifically to achieve a specific effect. Such a transfer is absolutely new. The audience is surprised by the pictorial expression.

Conscious metaphors

  • »The European House« (from architecture)
  • »Foundation of society« (from construction / architecture)
  • “Flame of the Spirit” (from the everyday world)
  • »Meltdown in the banking system« (from nuclear physics)
  • »Stream of Life« (from geography / topography)

The metaphor in epic, lyric and drama

In all three forms of literature, metaphorics plays a key role as a rhetorical figure. In addition to metaphors familiar to everyday readers, translated terms are often created by the author. These terms are therefore initially unknown. The context of meaning is easy or difficult to grasp depending on prior knowledge. If the interpretation succeeds, metaphors contribute to the understanding of the text. The clear description creates the opportunity to better understand what is meant without elaborate explanations. In particular, the emotional meaning can be detected more easily.

A well-understood metaphor makes a text easy to read, entertaining and memorable. If their purpose is to decrypt only with difficulty, the text becomes difficult to understand.

Examples

  • “Knights of the napkins”
    Thomas Mann: “Mario and the Wizard”
  • “Last Homestead of Feeling”
    Rainer Maria Rilke: “Exposed on the mountains of the heart”
  • “Dear Torch”
    Friedrich Schiller: “Maria Stuart”

The metaphor in poetry and modernity

Image result for writingMetaphors increase the poetics of texts by drawing pictures with words. An example would be the »clean sky«. In a poetry analysis, the interpretation of metaphors plays an important role.

Examples

  • “The angel who conceals himself in you” (Angel stands metaphorically for the beloved)
    Eduard Möricke: “To the Beloved”
  • “A rose-colored spring weather
    Laid on the lovely face « (happiness and love, being in love are reflected on her face)
    Johann Wolfgang von Goethe: “Welcome and farewell”

Modern authors often use metaphors in ways that are difficult or impossible to decode. The incomprehensible picture forces one to pause while reading. Then the textual environment in which the metaphor stands is more important than the meaning of the transmitted expression.

The metaphor in politics and advertising

Metaphors are also popular in political rhetoric . They make speeches memorable and interesting and make pictures in the minds of the audience. In the face of the financial crisis, for example, politicians speak of the “tide change”. As the listeners visualize, a complicated process is easier for them to grasp.

Examples from politics

  • “The climate in the coalition negotiations was good.” (From meteorology)
  • “Scholz wants to continue the course of his predecessor.” (From the sea)
  • »The course is set for a change.« (Out of circulation)

In advertising , metaphors are indispensable because they convey feelings very well. This is helpful to encourage consumers to buy. In addition, the viewer and potential customer remember memorable images and allegorical phrases better than a linguistic statement.

Examples from advertising

  • »Red Bull lends wings .« (Energy Drink)
  • »The yellow angel .« (ADAC)
  • ” You can build on these stones . « (Schwäbisch Hall)

Differentiation to other stylistic devices

Metaphor and comparison

A metaphor can be recognized by the fact that it is used without further explanation or reference words. It speaks for itself, and the reader or listener must open up the relationship between the two conceptual worlds themselves. In a comparison, on the other hand, this connection is represented by words, often by “how.”

Examples of a comparison

  • “The young woman is swift as a deer.”
  • “He rides like the wind.”
  • “The air is as soft as silk.”

Metaphor and metonymy

A metaphor transfers the actual concept into a foreign realm of meaning. There is originally no connection between the two conceptual worlds: metaphor for love = float on clouds . In metonymy, on the other hand, one word stands for a neighboring one: the leather hit the post; Leather = the football. (Here is the material for the object.)

Further examples of a metonymy

  • »Berlin abolishes the property tax.« (Berlin = the Federal Government)
  • “Goethe is on the top left corner of the shelf.” (Goethe = the works or the books of the poet)

Metaphors from different areas

  • “Tops the sea”
  • “creative head”
  • “Wall of Silence”
  • “Fist on the neck” (inevitable threat)
  • “Power of Darkness” (Forces of Evil)
  • “Desert Ship” (picture for a camel)
  • “Ugly duckling” (expression for a little attractive person)
  • »See something through the pink glasses« (to judge something too positively)

Litotes – Rhetorical Styles

What is a Litotes?

Image result for litotesThe Litotes (from Greek “litótēs” = simplicity, restraint) is a rhetorical stylistic device. It belongs to the tropics and is closely related to irony .

What are tropics?

Tropics is the generic term for a number of stylistic devices . In a trope (also: Tropus) is always an improper and pictorial expression. The meaning is not directly formulated, but replaced by another linguistic phrase. This comes either from the immediate vicinity or from another area of ​​imagination. It is used to make what is said more vivid and lively or to decorate a speech.

The term derives from the Greek tropos = turn . Even in Greek antiquity, tropics were popular as a means of rhetoric or stylistics. They were separated from each other and individually defined. The tropics include allegory , antonomatism, emphasis, euphemism , hyperbole , irony , catachesis (dead metaphor), Litotes, Metalepse, metaphor , metonymy , periphrase, personification , riddles, sarcasm, and synekdoche .

The Litotes belongs to the word figures and is

  • either the affirmation by double negation or by negation of the opposite
  • or the emphasis on what is meant by understatement and weakening.

Double negation and negation of the opposite are often not clearly separated. It is true that the negation of the opposite can be defined as a special form of double negation; nevertheless, the differences can be named and clearly distinguish both forms.

Affirmation by double negation

With almost all forms of double negation an affirmation is expressed in the German language. This also applies to the Litotes. In the case of double negation, a negative particle or a negative pronoun is called twice.

Examples of double negation

Example 1:

A mother accuses her daughter of going out without her knowledge. But the daughter told her about the invitation to a birthday party. She says:

“It’s not true (1) that I did not mention that (2).”
(= “I told you.”)

Example 2:

A police investigator says about a suspect:

“I do not believe (1) that he has nothing (2) to deal with.”
(= “I think he is the culprit.”)

Example 3:

An elderly woman points out with a view to her future:

“I have no (1) fear of not getting any (2) pension.”
(= “I’m sure I’ll get the pension.”)

Affirmation by negation of the opposite

When negating the opposite, the negative particle or the negative pronoun is mentioned only once. The second negation occurs indirectly by the mention of the opposite.

Examples of negation of the opposite

Example 1:

A music lover says about a world-famous tenor:

“He’s not (1) the worst singer (2).”
(= “He is a great master of his trade.”)

Example 2:

A woman complains about her internet acquaintance:

“He really is not a (1) gentleman (2).”
(= “He is a rude lout.”)

Her friend still likes the man. She answers:

“I still do not (1) despise him (2).”
(= »I still find him attractive.«)

Negation of the opposite as well packaged criticism

The negation of the opposite can also be a way to apply criticism in a gentle way that is better served by the addressee than a “frontal attack”: “You are no longer the leanest” sounds more nice than: “You have become fat.” “She is not a heroine” expresses more understanding of human weaknesses than: “She is cowardly.”

This use of the Litotes is characteristic of the ironic language style of Thomas Mann . He does not say about the old consul, Johann Buddenbrook, that he dresses fashionably, but: “At the age of seventy, he was not unfaithful to the fashion of his youth.”

Highlighted by understatement and mitigation

In another form of the Litotes the actually meant statement is underlined by weakening and undercutting. In this way, appreciation, praise and admiration can be expressed.

Examples of reinforcement by understatement and mitigation

Example 1:

A German teacher sees a pupil reading Rilke in his spare time saying:

“Rilke is said to have written passable poems, I’ve heard.”
(= “Rilke is one of the greatest poets.”)

He expresses his appreciation and approval of the pupil’s clever choice of reading materials.

Example 2:

A man visits his brother for the first time in his newly acquired, stately mansion. He says:

“You’ve got a nice house there.”
(= “Wow, what a fantastic house!”)

He states that he is impressed by the size and features of the house. This type of understatement is particularly appropriate when applied to someone else’s talents, possessions or achievements. The irony of understatement is a pleasant compliment.

By contrast, when talking about oneself in this form, one hides behind apparent understatement. Anyone who always speaks of his “hut” and thus means a magnificent estate on the Côte d’Azur, does not mean to emphasize his modesty but his luxurious lifestyle.

Relationship to the hyperbola

Related to the Litotes is the stylistic device of the hyperbola . It is an exaggeration emphasis, using the reverse language method to achieve the same goal.

Litotes – Rhetorical Styles

What is a Litotes?

Image result for litotesThe Litotes (from Greek “litótēs” = simplicity, restraint) is a rhetorical stylistic device. It belongs to the tropics and is closely related to irony .

What are tropics?

Tropics is the generic term for a number of stylistic devices . In a trope (also: Tropus) is always an improper and pictorial expression. The meaning is not directly formulated, but replaced by another linguistic phrase. This comes either from the immediate vicinity or from another area of ​​imagination. It is used to make what is said more vivid and lively or to decorate a speech.

The term derives from the Greek tropos = turn . Even in Greek antiquity, tropics were popular as a means of rhetoric or stylistics. They were separated from each other and individually defined. The tropics include allegory , antonomatism, emphasis, euphemism , hyperbole , irony , catachesis (dead metaphor), Litotes, Metalepse, metaphor , metonymy , periphrase, personification , riddles, sarcasm, and synekdoche .

The Litotes belongs to the word figures and is

  • either the affirmation by double negation or by negation of the opposite
  • or the emphasis on what is meant by understatement and weakening.

Double negation and negation of the opposite are often not clearly separated. It is true that the negation of the opposite can be defined as a special form of double negation; nevertheless, the differences can be named and clearly distinguish both forms.

Affirmation by double negation

With almost all forms of double negation an affirmation is expressed in the German language. This also applies to the Litotes. In the case of double negation, a negative particle or a negative pronoun is called twice.

Examples of double negation

Example 1:

A mother accuses her daughter of going out without her knowledge. But the daughter told her about the invitation to a birthday party. She says:

“It’s not true (1) that I did not mention that (2).”
(= “I told you.”)

Example 2:

A police investigator says about a suspect:

“I do not believe (1) that he has nothing (2) to deal with.”
(= “I think he is the culprit.”)

Example 3:

An elderly woman points out with a view to her future:

“I have no (1) fear of not getting any (2) pension.”
(= “I’m sure I’ll get the pension.”)

Affirmation by negation of the opposite

When negating the opposite, the negative particle or the negative pronoun is mentioned only once. The second negation occurs indirectly by the mention of the opposite.

Examples of negation of the opposite

Example 1:

A music lover says about a world-famous tenor:

“He’s not (1) the worst singer (2).”
(= “He is a great master of his trade.”)

Example 2:

A woman complains about her internet acquaintance:

“He really is not a (1) gentleman (2).”
(= “He is a rude lout.”)

Her friend still likes the man. She answers:

“I still do not (1) despise him (2).”
(= »I still find him attractive.«)

Negation of the opposite as well packaged criticism

The negation of the opposite can also be a way to apply criticism in a gentle way that is better served by the addressee than a “frontal attack”: “You are no longer the leanest” sounds more nice than: “You have become fat.” “She is not a heroine” expresses more understanding of human weaknesses than: “She is cowardly.”

This use of the Litotes is characteristic of the ironic language style of Thomas Mann . He does not say about the old consul, Johann Buddenbrook, that he dresses fashionably, but: “At the age of seventy, he was not unfaithful to the fashion of his youth.”

Highlighted by understatement and mitigation

In another form of the Litotes the actually meant statement is underlined by weakening and undercutting. In this way, appreciation, praise and admiration can be expressed.

Examples of reinforcement by understatement and mitigation

Example 1:

A German teacher sees a pupil reading Rilke in his spare time saying:

“Rilke is said to have written passable poems, I’ve heard.”
(= “Rilke is one of the greatest poets.”)

He expresses his appreciation and approval of the pupil’s clever choice of reading materials.

Example 2:

A man visits his brother for the first time in his newly acquired, stately mansion. He says:

“You’ve got a nice house there.”
(= “Wow, what a fantastic house!”)

He states that he is impressed by the size and features of the house. This type of understatement is particularly appropriate when applied to someone else’s talents, possessions or achievements. The irony of understatement is a pleasant compliment.

By contrast, when talking about oneself in this form, one hides behind apparent understatement. Anyone who always speaks of his “hut” and thus means a magnificent estate on the Côte d’Azur, does not mean to emphasize his modesty but his luxurious lifestyle.

Relationship to the hyperbola

Related to the Litotes is the stylistic device of the hyperbola . It is an exaggeration emphasis, using the reverse language method to achieve the same goal.

Litotes – Rhetorical Styles

What is a Litotes?

Image result for litotesThe Litotes (from Greek “litótēs” = simplicity, restraint) is a rhetorical stylistic device. It belongs to the tropics and is closely related to irony .

What are tropics?

Tropics is the generic term for a number of stylistic devices . In a trope (also: Tropus) is always an improper and pictorial expression. The meaning is not directly formulated, but replaced by another linguistic phrase. This comes either from the immediate vicinity or from another area of ​​imagination. It is used to make what is said more vivid and lively or to decorate a speech.

The term derives from the Greek tropos = turn . Even in Greek antiquity, tropics were popular as a means of rhetoric or stylistics. They were separated from each other and individually defined. The tropics include allegory , antonomatism, emphasis, euphemism , hyperbole , irony , catachesis (dead metaphor), Litotes, Metalepse, metaphor , metonymy , periphrase, personification , riddles, sarcasm, and synekdoche .

The Litotes belongs to the word figures and is

  • either the affirmation by double negation or by negation of the opposite
  • or the emphasis on what is meant by understatement and weakening.

Double negation and negation of the opposite are often not clearly separated. It is true that the negation of the opposite can be defined as a special form of double negation; nevertheless, the differences can be named and clearly distinguish both forms.

Affirmation by double negation

With almost all forms of double negation an affirmation is expressed in the German language. This also applies to the Litotes. In the case of double negation, a negative particle or a negative pronoun is called twice.

Examples of double negation

Example 1:

A mother accuses her daughter of going out without her knowledge. But the daughter told her about the invitation to a birthday party. She says:

“It’s not true (1) that I did not mention that (2).”
(= “I told you.”)

Example 2:

A police investigator says about a suspect:

“I do not believe (1) that he has nothing (2) to deal with.”
(= “I think he is the culprit.”)

Example 3:

An elderly woman points out with a view to her future:

“I have no (1) fear of not getting any (2) pension.”
(= “I’m sure I’ll get the pension.”)

Affirmation by negation of the opposite

When negating the opposite, the negative particle or the negative pronoun is mentioned only once. The second negation occurs indirectly by the mention of the opposite.

Examples of negation of the opposite

Example 1:

A music lover says about a world-famous tenor:

“He’s not (1) the worst singer (2).”
(= “He is a great master of his trade.”)

Example 2:

A woman complains about her internet acquaintance:

“He really is not a (1) gentleman (2).”
(= “He is a rude lout.”)

Her friend still likes the man. She answers:

“I still do not (1) despise him (2).”
(= »I still find him attractive.«)

Negation of the opposite as well packaged criticism

The negation of the opposite can also be a way to apply criticism in a gentle way that is better served by the addressee than a “frontal attack”: “You are no longer the leanest” sounds more nice than: “You have become fat.” “She is not a heroine” expresses more understanding of human weaknesses than: “She is cowardly.”

This use of the Litotes is characteristic of the ironic language style of Thomas Mann . He does not say about the old consul, Johann Buddenbrook, that he dresses fashionably, but: “At the age of seventy, he was not unfaithful to the fashion of his youth.”

Highlighted by understatement and mitigation

In another form of the Litotes the actually meant statement is underlined by weakening and undercutting. In this way, appreciation, praise and admiration can be expressed.

Examples of reinforcement by understatement and mitigation

Example 1:

A German teacher sees a pupil reading Rilke in his spare time saying:

“Rilke is said to have written passable poems, I’ve heard.”
(= “Rilke is one of the greatest poets.”)

He expresses his appreciation and approval of the pupil’s clever choice of reading materials.

Example 2:

A man visits his brother for the first time in his newly acquired, stately mansion. He says:

“You’ve got a nice house there.”
(= “Wow, what a fantastic house!”)

He states that he is impressed by the size and features of the house. This type of understatement is particularly appropriate when applied to someone else’s talents, possessions or achievements. The irony of understatement is a pleasant compliment.

By contrast, when talking about oneself in this form, one hides behind apparent understatement. Anyone who always speaks of his “hut” and thus means a magnificent estate on the Côte d’Azur, does not mean to emphasize his modesty but his luxurious lifestyle.

Relationship to the hyperbola

Related to the Litotes is the stylistic device of the hyperbola . It is an exaggeration emphasis, using the reverse language method to achieve the same goal.

Climax – Rhetorical stylistic device

What is a climax?

Image result for climax in literatureThe Climax (from ancient Greek “klimax” = ladder) is a rhetorical stylistic device of enhancement .

In several (usually three) stages Klimax puts together words, phrases or phrases, moving from a weak expression to a stronger one to the strongest. The last term of the sequence thus represents its climax.

Example:

“I begged, begged, begged on my knees.”

The increase may refer to different qualities. Thus the concepts can move from the smallest to the largest, from the most insignificant to the most important, from the most inaccurate to the most precise or from the lowest to the highest.

“The news spread in every village, every city, every country.”

“Everyone was full of joy that day, beggar, peasant or nobleman.”

»I read what I like: penny books, entertainment novels, works of world literature.«

Effect of climax

The slow approach to the subject, the gradual, gradual movement towards the goal statement, increases the tension and excites the listener or reader. One of the most famous examples of this is Julius Caesar’s saying:

“Veni, vidi, vici.”
(“I came, I saw, I conquered.”)

Linguist and rhetoric expert Anita Hermann-Ruess says about this process: “When we boost, it’s like turning the main switch that controls the intensity of the emotions.” [1]

The climax in the literature

Related imageThe Klimax is also used in literature as a rhetorical device to put the reader in an expectation and to raise his attention. Using the Klimax makes a text lively, emotional and expressive:

“I declared war on the kingship, I struck it, I killed it and threw a king’s head as a gauntlet for the kings.”
Georg Büchner, Danton’s death

“You understood? You forgave? You forgot? What a misunderstanding, you just stopped loving. ”
Arthur Schnitzler, aphorisms and reflections

Climax and anti-climax

The rhetorical process underlying the climax is called Amplificatio (lat. = Extension). Such an extension can be an increase as just described. But it can also appear as a reduction and weakening. In this opposite case one speaks of the Antiklimax.

Examples:

“She’s just jealous: my house, my kitchen, even my coffee machine.”

“Roland loved all nature, trees, shrubs, and blades of grass.”

Important: The effect is the amplification and increase of the statement just as with the Klimax. This effect is produced only by a reverse process. As the examples show, the anti-climax is in some cases more effective than the climax: how great must be the envy of a woman who begrudges her neighbor even the coffee machine. And how strong must Roland’s love of nature be if he loves the blades of grass himself!

The Klimax in sales pitch and advertising

In sales psychology , the climax is known as a means to reinforce a statement and make it more memorable. Sales arguments are not simply strung together, but placed in a logical context: From the weakest argument, the seller proceeds step by step to more convincing arguments to finally reach the pinnacle of the conversation with the strongest selling point.

So could a bookseller z. For example, recommend a book on memory training in the following words:

»The title is on the Spiegel bestseller list. Most have already read it. He is so exciting that you will not let him out of his hand anymore. But best of all, you can boost your memory with the included exercises! «

Further examples:

»The drink has hardly any calories, tastes delicious and improves the appearance of the skin in a few days.«

»This wall paint is inexpensive and at the same time ecologically harmless. With her dreamlike natural tones she transforms your living space into a private paradise. «

In advertising slogans are numerous examples of the use of Klimax and Antiklimax. Often called the last link in the chain of increase instead of the superlative brand name. This procedure requires a basic understanding of the forms of customer enhancement.

“Well. Better. Paulaner. “

“Bigger. Better. Burger King. “

“Clear. Bubbly. Sprite. “

“Square. Practically. Well.”

Climax – Rhetorical stylistic device

What is a climax?

The Climax (from ancient Greek “klimax” = ladder) is a rhetorical stylistic device of enhancement .

In several (usually three) stages Klimax puts together words, phrases or phrases, moving from a weak expression to a stronger one to the strongest. The last term of the sequence thus represents its climax.

Example:

“I begged, begged, begged on my knees.”

The increase may refer to different qualities. Thus the concepts can move from the smallest to the largest, from the most insignificant to the most important, from the most inaccurate to the most precise or from the lowest to the highest.

“The news spread in every village, every city, every country.”

“Everyone was full of joy that day, beggar, peasant or nobleman.”

»I read what I like: penny books, entertainment novels, works of world literature.«

Effect of climax

The slow approach to the subject, the gradual, gradual movement towards the goal statement, increases the tension and excites the listener or reader. One of the most famous examples of this is Julius Caesar’s saying:

“Veni, vidi, vici.”
(“I came, I saw, I conquered.”)

Linguist and rhetoric expert Anita Hermann-Ruess says about this process: “When we boost, it’s like turning the main switch that controls the intensity of the emotions.” [1]

The climax in the literature

Related imageThe Klimax is also used in literature as a rhetorical device to put the reader in an expectation and to raise his attention. Using the Klimax makes a text lively, emotional and expressive:

“I declared war on the kingship, I struck it, I killed it and threw a king’s head as a gauntlet for the kings.”
Georg Büchner, Danton’s death

“You understood? You forgave? You forgot? What a misunderstanding, you just stopped loving. ”
Arthur Schnitzler, aphorisms and reflections

Climax and anti-climax

The rhetorical process underlying the climax is called Amplificatio (lat. = Extension). Such an extension can be an increase as just described. But it can also appear as a reduction and weakening. In this opposite case one speaks of the Antiklimax.

Examples:

“She’s just jealous: my house, my kitchen, even my coffee machine.”

“Roland loved all nature, trees, shrubs, and blades of grass.”

Important: The effect is the amplification and increase of the statement just as with the Klimax. This effect is produced only by a reverse process. As the examples show, the anti-climax is in some cases more effective than the climax: how great must be the envy of a woman who begrudges her neighbor even the coffee machine. And how strong must Roland’s love of nature be if he loves the blades of grass himself!

The Klimax in sales pitch and advertising

In sales psychology , the climax is known as a means to reinforce a statement and make it more memorable. Sales arguments are not simply strung together, but placed in a logical context: From the weakest argument, the seller proceeds step by step to more convincing arguments to finally reach the pinnacle of the conversation with the strongest selling point.

So could a bookseller z. For example, recommend a book on memory training in the following words:

»The title is on the Spiegel bestseller list. Most have already read it. He is so exciting that you will not let him out of his hand anymore. But best of all, you can boost your memory with the included exercises! «

Further examples:

»The drink has hardly any calories, tastes delicious and improves the appearance of the skin in a few days.«

»This wall paint is inexpensive and at the same time ecologically harmless. With her dreamlike natural tones she transforms your living space into a private paradise. «

In advertising slogans are numerous examples of the use of Klimax and Antiklimax. Often called the last link in the chain of increase instead of the superlative brand name. This procedure requires a basic understanding of the forms of customer enhancement.

“Well. Better. Paulaner. “

“Bigger. Better. Burger King. “

“Clear. Bubbly. Sprite. “

“Square. Practically. Well.”