Narration – Literary Texts

Narratives as own text genre

The story is probably one of the oldest genres in literature. Still, defining a narrative is not easy. On the basis of certain characteristics and properties, this text form can be outlined quite accurately. Together with some examples, this gives a very accurate picture of the nature of a narrative.

The narrative – attempt a definition

The term is essentially described in the narrative theory (narratology) with the description of events. These can be retold events or invented events. The narrative follows a certain chronological sequence. The story can be presented verbally or in writing. The form of a narrative knows four different perspectives. In the case of the authorial narration, the narrator already knows all the events, in a neutral narrative the narrator has no relation to the events described. The first-person narrator reports on what he has experienced and the personal narrative describes the narrative from the observer’s perspective. Even the method of narration is an essential feature of the stories. Here, a distinction is made between a summarized, a retrospective and a decidedly extended (time-destroying) narrative method.

Because these features also apply to other types of text of the epic, the actual narrative is delimited from the anecdote, the novella or the short story by a few additional criteria.

Components of narratives

In narratology, a narrative often follows a fixed and chronological structure (introduction, main part, conclusion).


The introduction serves to determine the respective narrative form and the perspective. In addition, the temporal perspective (praetorium or present tense) already appears in the introduction to the narrative. Furthermore, the introduction clarifies some of the circumstances and questions that are important to understanding the narrative. Readers or listeners are informed about the location and time of the following events, about the persons involved and about possible histories.

Superlatives (powerful adjectives and verbs), but no exaggerations, are often used as stylistic devices to arouse the interest of readers and listeners. The introduction of a narrative thus serves as information and is at the same time the basis for the so-called tension arc which is yet to follow.


The main part has essentially two tasks. It contains the actual events that need to be reported. It will answer other questions that are important for understanding the following events. The main part drives the actual action and reports on current situations. Furthermore, the activities of the persons involved are explained, their behavior is clarified and the consequences of the trade are described. Even the portrayal of emotional states and ways of thinking can be found in the main part of a narrative. Flashbacks that may be necessary for understanding are often presented in the form of dreams, memories or letters. And finally, the main part also informs about the consequences that arise for all involved from the described events.

The second task of the main part is the further construction of the voltage arc. For this purpose, the basic events from the introduction are taken up and continued. The interest in the narrative is further increased, which increases the curiosity of readers and listeners (ideally) massively. At the end of the main part, the tension of the narrative has reached its climax.


The conclusion of a narrative can include two options. In most narratives, the previously constructed tension or conflict is resolved. In the case also about possible consequences of the narrated for the involved ones are reported. Even an unexpected end of the story can complete a narrative.

Alternatively, narrative theory also has narrations with an open degree. Here the reader or the listener is invited to his own interpretation of the events and their consequences.

Distinctions to other types of text

To categorize a narrative within the epic, some features may serve as an aid. Though narratives contain complex actions, a fixed timeframe, and defined characters, in comparison to a novel narratives are less extensive and less detailed. In terms of scope, the narrative thus stands between the novel and a short story. Furthermore, a narrative often describes a continuous action, while a novella mainly lives on surprises or news. The linking of persons and the main event takes precedence in the novella, while the narrative offers as comprehensible a description as possible. In addition, the novella often focuses only on essential facts, while the narrative also includes emotions, the environment, and conclusions of the plot.

Examples from the centuries

Among the first surviving narratives are the fables of Aesop. With stories like “The sun and the wind” or “The fox and the grapes” the poet already coined in 600 BC. Chr. The genre of the story. In the Middle Ages, religious themes were the focus of attention. The “Gesta Romanorum” is a collection of sagas and fairy tales from the 13th century with Christian character. Friedrich Schiller has also written numerous narratives in addition to dramas, poems and ballads. Among his best-known works of this type of text are: “A Magnanimous Act” (1782), “The Ghostseer” (1788) or (in the broader sense) the Diderot translation “Strange Example of a Female Revenge”.

In the recent past, for example, “Mr. and Dog” by Thomas Mann from 1918 should be mentioned. Important representatives of the 20th century are also Dieter Wellershoff, Botho Strauss and Patrick Süskind.

Furthermore, a distinction can be made today between different country-specific and regional narratives.

Characteristics of a short story – scope, content, language

cksideWhat is a short story?

The short story is a young literary genre from the 20th century. It forms a subgenus of the epic ; because of its small size, it is one of the small epic forms. The term is a loan translation from English. The story comes from the short story in the American short story .

Characteristics of a short story

The main features

  • Direct entry into an everyday situation
  • A description of a conflict that is not resolved
  • Open end, from which the reader can think further
  • Just a storyline
  • Accelerated storytelling speed
  • Precise, concise language, often colloquial


Located between short novel, novella and anecdote, the short story is characterized by a small amount of text. Sometimes it covers only one or two pages, but it can also be much longer. Because of its length alone, it can not always be distinguished from a narrative.


The staff (characters) of a short story is limited to one or a few main characters. These are ordinary people and are often typed. You are in a decision situation that leads to a conflict. This sometimes leads to a surprising turn.

The event captures a short period in the life of the protagonists; Sometimes flashbacks or foresight come up. The everyday happenings focus on one moment and point to universal truths. Often the content of a short story is fantastic or scary.


Characteristic of a short story is the unmediated opening: the reader is set in one sentence in the middle of an already started event. The course of action of the short story is straightforward. The narrative tempo is accelerated, the narrated time experiences a compression. The end is often surprising, but the outcome of the story always remains open.

Examples of direct entry

  • “The woman was leaning against the window and looking over.”
    Ilse Aichinger: “The Window Theater”. From: IA, The Tied Up, Fischer, 1953
  • “We lived on the third floor in the middle of the city and have never been guilty of anything. We also had years of friendship with Dörfelts from across the way, until the wife borrowed our frying pan and did not bring it back shortly before the feast.”
    Gerhard Zwerenz: “Do not let everything please …” From: GZ, Gesänge in the market. Fantastic stories and love songs, Kiepenheuer & Witsch, 1962


The language of the short story underscores its closeness to reality. It is simple and unaffected and focused on the essentials. The sentence structure is precise and concise. The tone is often colloquial, especially in verbal speech.

Reference to the reader

The short story is aimed at a broad readership by publishing in magazines and magazines. It picks up on current topics that often stem from the reader’s everyday or experiential world. This offers him the opportunity to identify. The illumination of a single everyday moment corresponds to the lack of commitment of modern times. The open form does not dictate anything, but leaves the reader room for their own thoughts. The short story asks the reader to interpret. In the narrative, he can find the essence of life.

Development of the short story


One pioneer of the German short story , for example, is Johann Peter Hebel with his calendar stories (“Schatzkästlein der Rheinischen Hausfreunde”, 1811). Approaches can also be found in Heinrich von Kleist (“The beggar woman of Locarno”, 1810), ETA Hoffmann and Hebbel.

Like the short story in America, the short story in Germany arose in connection with the requirements of magazines and magazines : Was previously the gregarious reading of short stories cared for, you needed in an accelerated period from about 1920 a short read for the hurried single reader.

Authors of German short stories in the prewar period

  • Alfred Döblin (1878-1957)
  • Leonhard Frank (1882-1961)
  • Heinrich Mann (1871-1950)
  • Robert Musil (1880-1942)
  • Walter Serner (1889-1942)

time after war

In the post-war period, the short story after American model in Germany became very popular. The experience of the Second World War led to a break with old narrative traditions . One was suspicious of large literary forms such as the novel. The reader did not want to be explained to the world by a supposedly omniscient narrator. Small clippings of reality and subjective experiences in short stories, however, seemed credible.

Conversely, the laconic, concise language was particularly suitable for the contents of post-war literature. It seemed appropriate to portray experiences such as persecution and imprisonment. Between 1945 and 1965 short stories were first of all style exercises of a new, ideology-free German literature, then an examination of the past, the existential need of the present or the economic miracle.

Later, the political conditions in the Federal Republic were discussed, interpersonal relationships, alienation and communication disorders. But already at the beginning of the 1970s , the short story had reached its peak in Germany. Novels, tales or hybrids of the Kurzepik came to the fore.

Well-known German short stories from the post-war period

  • “Felix” by Hans Bender (1919-2015)
  • “San Salvador”, 1964, by Peter Bichsel (born 1935)
  • »Wanderer, are you coming to Spa …«, 1950, by Heinrich Böll (1917-1985)
  • »The Bread«, 1946, by Wolfgang Borchert (1921-1947)
  • »The Great Wildenberg«, by Siegfried Lenz (1926-2014)
  • »The Fat Kid«, 1952, by Marie Luise Kaschnitz (1901-1974)
  • “Jeno was my friend”, 1958, by Wolfdietrich Schnurre (1920-1989)

Short story and short story

The English-American Short Story was written around 1820. The blossoming of magazines and magazines took a short epic form. Many of the authors were both journalists and writers. The short story met the demands of modern man. The everyday gear increasingly lacked the time for longer reading.

The world’s first short stories included “Tales of the Grotesque and Arabesques” by Edgar Allan Poe (1840). Poe was also the one who requires a “letter tale” to be precise. It should not contain anything that does not serve the purpose of narrative. Above all, she must be able to read all at once in order to develop her artistic effect. [1]

Short story

Founder of the American short story at the beginning of the 19th century:

  • Washington Irving (1783-1859)
  • Nathaniel Hawthorne (1804-1864)
  • Edgar Allan Poe (1809-1849)

Authors of short stories from the middle of the 19th century (selection):

  • Mark Twain (1835-1910)
  • Jack London (1876-1916)
  • Ambrose Bierce (1842-1914)

Well-known authors of short stories in the 20th century:

  • William Faulkner (1897-1962)
  • Ernest Hemingway (1899-1961)

Fairy tales – Literary text types

What is a fairytale?

The fairy tale belongs to the small forms of the epic . In short prose texts, elements of the real and magical world are interwoven. The term is a diminutive of Middle High German maere = narrative, customer, report .

For centuries, folk tales have been handed down orally. In the epoch of Romanticism (1795 – 1835) fairy tales and legends were first recognized as literary genres and written down. In addition, the fairy tale reached its peak during this time. This does not come from the folk tradition, but is the work of a single poet.

Typical features of a fairytale

  • Fixed initial and final formula
  • Neither tied to place nor to time
  • Typical figures, which are strongly contrasted (poor – rich, ugly – beautiful, good – evil)
  • Fixed narrative scheme (crisis situation, exams and probation, redemption)
  • Fantastic figures and enchantments
  • Balancing justice: good wins, evil is punished
  • Can not be attributed to a writer as Volksgut

Description of the textform fairy tale


With “Once upon a time …” almost all folk tales are introduced. And children often end a fairy tale lecture with the hopeful formula: “And if they have not died, they still live today.” Both underline the utter detachment of a fairytale of space and time and its universality.

Most folk tales, especially those of the Brothers Grimm, follow a well-known narrative scheme beyond the known initial and final formulas. Basic situations always return in variations:

  1. The fairy tale hero gets into a crisis situation and has to leave his homeland;
  2. On his journey he has to prove himself and pass (mostly three) exams;
  3. In the end there is salvation and reward.


The staff in the fairy tale consists of strongly typed and contrasted figures. The king faces the poor miller’s daughter (social opposition), the ugly frog the beautiful princess (physical opposition) and the evil witch the good Hansel (moral opposition).

In addition to figures from the real world, fantastic creatures such as witches, dwarfs and giants emerge. Animals can talk or transform. Reality and magical world permeate each other.

Frequent motive in fairy tales is hiking, also in the figurative sense: old or survived things are left behind. Humans undergo maturation processes by confronting their own challenges with trust in good powers. He overcomes himself and reaches a new level of being.

The roles of good and evil are clearly divided in the fairy tale: the good always wins and the evil is severely punished.

historical development

Folk tales come from times long past. Each nation has its own fairytale treasure rooted in its history and traditions. Especially in the lower social classes, fairy tales have been passed on from generation to generation. In German-speaking countries, it was the great merit of the nationally-conscious romantics to gather and publish oral tradition until then.

The first German collections of Musaeus (folk fairy tale of the Germans, 1782) or Ernst Moritz Arndt were changed by massive stylistic interventions according to the understanding of the romantics from legends to art fairy tales. Only the two 1812 and 1815 published books of the Brothers Grimm actually contain traditional fairy tales, although they were stylistically edited and cleaned up.

Well-known folk art collections from the Romantic era

  • “The boy’s wonderhorn”
    Folk song collection by Achim von Arnim and Clemens von Brentano (1805 – 1808))
  • “Children’s and Household Tales”
    Fairy tale collection by Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm (2 Bd., 1812 and 1815)
  • “Germans say”
    Sagas by Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm (2 Bd., 1816 and 1818)
  • »German Folk Books«
    Collection of legends and legends by Gustav Schwab (1836 to 1837)
  • “Most beautiful legends of classical antiquity”
    Collection of Ancient Myths by Gustav Schwab (1838 to 1840)

Related imageFrom ancient times, only the “fairy tale of Cupid and Psyche” is known. The German romantics are regarded as the true founders of art fairy tales . They appropriated the fantastic and enchanting presentation of folk tales. Unlike these, fairy tales are sometimes constructed and often psychologically or philosophically oriented.

At the beginning, their poets maintained a superior distance from the traditional folk material. For example, Johann Karl August Musäus (1735 – 1787) or Christoph Martin Wieland (1733 – 1813) wanted to entertain the enlightened society with their fantastic stories.

It was only through the influence of Johann Gottfried Herder (1744-1803) that a shift to the simple and the original began: they tried to imitate the simple patterns of action and the natural-looking style of the folktales. Longer art fairy tales are often referred to as fairy tale novels .

Distinguishing features of the fairy tales of folktales

  • The work of a specific and named author
  • Authored under artistic aspects
  • Artful language
  • Occasionally designed
  • Underground “message”

Differentiation to other types of text

Fairy tale or myth?

A myth (Greek = word, story) is a traditional narrative that deals with gods, demons, cultural heroes and heroes. From him the fairy tale differs above all by the absence of a divine sphere. Nor in myth is the victory of good over evil taken for granted.

Fairy tale or legend?

A legend is a traditional narrative that can deal with fantastic events or so-called miracles and objectively contain the untrue. But it has a real core and contains information about place and time as well as names. In addition, she differs from the fairy tale by a self-proclaimed main character and an often tragic outcome.

Fairy tale or legend?

The legend (lat. Legenda = to read) is about a real figure, often a saint or God-fearing man, who can trust after a probation for a good outcome. In contrast to the legend, the fairy tale lacks the reference to God. In addition, the often exemplary events are spatially and temporally fixed there.

Art fairy tales for adults

  • Novalis, “The Fairytale of Hyacinth and Rose Blossom”, 1802
  • Ludwig Tieck, “The Blonde Eckbert” , 1797
  • Ludwig Tieck, “The Rune Mountain” , 1804
  • Friedrich de La Motte Fouqué, “Undine” , 1811
  • Adelbert von Chamisso, “Peter Schlehmil’s Wondrous Story,” 1814
  • ETA Hoffmann, “The Golden Pot” , 1814
  • ETA Hoffmann, “Small Zaches, called Zinnober,” 1819
  • Clemens Brentano, “Gockel, Hinkel and Gakkeleia”, 1838

anti tales

Antimalarchs are similar to folk tales and art fairy tales, for example they have fantastic elements. However, as the term suggests, they turn key features of the fairy tale upside down. The main character does not experience salvation in the end. There is no naive trust in the victory of the good. Instead, the reader experiences insecurity and questions the existing world order. A well-known example of a so-called Antimarch is Franz Kafka’s The Transfiguration of 1915.

Oxymoron (stylistic agent) – examples and effects

What is an oxymoron?

The oxymoron (plural: Oxymora) belongs as a rhetorical stylistic device to the tropics. It is with him a word composition (compound), or a combination of words that is opposite of words and / or widely spaced importance.

The origin of the term “oxymoron” already indicates that it is composed of the Greek words “oxys” = sharp (sensible) and “moros” = dull / stupid, and thus contains an antithesis.


Examples of Oxymora as word compositions:

  • “Love-hate”
  • “bittersweet”
  • “Stupid smart”

Examples of Oxymora as phrases:

  • “Painfully beautiful”
  • “good as hell”
  • »Squaring the circle«
  • “loved enemy”
  • »Loving challenge«

Contradictio in adiecto: A subgroup of oxymoron

The Contradictio in adiecto (Latin = contradiction in the enclosure) is a special form of oxymoron. It always consists of a noun and an adjective. An adjective usually serves to give a more detailed description of the noun to which it is attached. In the Contradictio in adiecto noun and adjective, however, do not match, as in the above example “loving challenge”.

This apparent contradiction sharpens the attention for the term. The contrast acts like a stumbling block, prompting you to listen more carefully or think about this phrase.

Further examples are:

  • “Aggressive friendliness”
  • »Calm dynamics«
  • “Energetic gentleness”

Other phrases have lost this effect by their frequent use meanwhile. Everyone knows what is meant by an “old boy” or an “old girl,” “eloquent silence,” or a “silent cry.” Here the contradictio in adiecto is used almost without any intention and has become part of the everyday language.

The oxymoron in the literature

Image result for literatureBut if a pair of opposites is new and surprising, it attracts particular attention. This is true not only for the Contradictio in adiecto, but for all Oxymora. They are therefore popular in the literature. They are found in all literary genres as well as in various literary epochs and currents.

So the well-known fun poem “It was dark, the moon shone bright” is a juxtaposition of Oxymora. His first verse is:

“It was dark, the moon was bright
Snow covers the green corridor
As a car as fast as lightning
Drive slowly around the corner. ”
(Author unknown)

A famous example from the serious poetry is Friedrich Hölderlin’s word composition “sad-happy”:

“And the youth who drew electricity into the plain,
Sad, like the heart, if it is too beautiful,
Love to go down,
Throw yourself into the floods of time. ”
Friedrich Hölderlin, »Heidelberg«

The oxymoron in baroque poetry

Literature in the Baroque era (circa 1600 – 1720) is shaped by the horrors of the Thirty Years’ War (1618-1648). Above all in poetry, the theme of pain is the transience of everything earthly. The consciousness of futility in this world is opposed by the religious hope of eternal life in the face of God. The oxymoron is the appropriate figure to poetically express the contrast between earthly and eternal life.

The use of ancient rhetorical stylistic devices was a basic feature of every poet in the Baroque. It was a self-evident convention, in a sense its tools. The literary scholar Christoph Parry remarks on the use of the oxymoron: “In a poet like Andreas Gryphius, rhetorical convention combines with genuinely perceived pain in the motif of the transience and futility of everything earthly.” [1]


»The shoulders of warm snow will become cold sand«
Christian Hoffmann von Hoffmannswaldau, “transience of beauty”

“Spit the serious spil, because time still suffers”
Andreas Gryphius, “The image of our life”

»Since only generosity and chaste voluptuousness hover«
Martin Opitz, “From Wolff’s Fountain at Heidelberg”

The oxymoron in romantic lyric

Lyricists of the Romantic period (circa 1790 – 1830) also frequently work with oxymoron. They also speak, not unlike the Baroque poets, about human condition and divine infinity. This pair of opposites in Romanticism does not refer to Christian ideas in the narrower sense.

It is more about the split between restrictive social rules and feelings that go beyond these rigid rules. The romantics make the contradiction of bourgeois and artistic existence to the topic. They counter the rational pragmatism of the Enlightenment with imagination and intuition.


“O rich poverty! Giving, blessed receiving! «
Karoline von Günderode, “Love”

“Infinite and mysterious / sweet shower”
Novalis, “Hymns to the Night”

“There is written in the forest / a silent, serious word.”
Joseph von Eichendorff, “farewell”

Because the oxymoron is a particularly daring stylistic device, it meets the romantic goals. In terms of content, it combines what is incompatible and thus undermines the laws of logic.

Personification – Rhetorical style means

What is a personification?

The personification is a rhetorical stylistic device . It is a kind of metaphor and is often used. The term can be derived from the Latin (persona = person, ficare = make ) and means humanization : Animals, plants or lifeless are endowed with human qualities or act like humans.


  • “A timid attempt”
  • »Time is running «
  • »Leaves dance in the wind«
  • »The sky is crying «
  • »Art and science go hand in hand «

How is a personification formed?

Animals, plants, abstract concepts, natural phenomena or lifeless things are represented in the literature as acting or speaking people . Examples of this can already be found in ancient rhetoric, in myth and especially in the literary genre Fabel.


  • Goethe portrays time (Chronos) in his poem as »Brother-in-Law Kronos«.
  • Fables of Aesop like “The Fox and the Raven”

However, personification can also be expressed in the form of verbs, adjectives or nouns . In doing so, actions, properties or concepts familiar from human interaction are transferred to abstract concepts or inanimate things. The personification is a stylistic device, which is easy to discover in texts .


  • “Faith conquers fear”
  • “I waved lucky”
  • ” Blind rage”
  • »A limping comparison«
  • ” Father State”
  • »A power- eating refrigerator«

Effect of personification

The personification can be found in literary works as well as in political speeches. It is also widely used in advertising and everyday language. By using this style figure becomes a text and language becomes livelier. Listeners and readers can more easily grasp the content. In addition, the vivid design enhances the interest and ensures the necessary attention.

Personification in the literature

Related imageThe personification is equally a stylistic device of the epic as the lyric. The ancient Greek philosopher Plato, the Roman thinker and writer Cicero or the poets in the Middle Ages and Baroque personified, for example, the law (“Justitia”) or the fatherland. In fables act animals that are endowed with human reason and language. The animals embody certain characteristics. The fox, for example, stands for cunning, the lion for strength and power. A famous personification in the poem is “The Girl from the Stranger” by Friedrich Schiller, in which he makes art a woman.


“Spring lets its blue ribbon
Flapping through the air again «
Eduard Mörike (1804-1875), “It’s him”

“A big sack – the farmer Bolte,
Who wanted to take him to the mill,
To hang out
Close to a ripe ear field,
Settles in graceful folds
And start making a speech. ”
Wilhelm Busch (1832-1908), “The full bag”

Personifications as a cartoon

Personification is also used to characterize a nation or to caricature its (alleged) character. Clichéd ideas of the characteristics of a people are summarized in a figure.


  • »German Michel« (Germany)
  • “Uncle Sam” (USA)
  • »John Bull« (Great Britain)

Personification in politics

Political speeches demand more than objectivity and focus on facts in order to attract the attention of the audience. So politicians use the entire range of rhetorical stylistic devices, so that the lecture shows the desired effect. Personification is one of the rhetorical devices that are quite common in everyday politics.


»The sparrows whistle from the rooftops: knowledge is the most important resource in our resource-poor country today.«
Roman Herzog, 1997, Berlin Education Forum

“Yes, the language jumps out of the bureaucratic and newspaper German out in which it was wrapped, and remembers her emotional words.”
Christa Wolf, 1989, speech on the Alexanderplatz in Berlin

Personification in advertising

The advertising works with all rhetorical possibilities of the speech design, in order to give products to a higher Bekanntheitsgrad and to increase the recognition value. Thus, in the advertising language personifications can be found in catchy slogans.


  • »Citroën – Intelligence on wheels« (car manufacturer Citroën)
  • “Because our skin is thirsty for health.” (Thermal water from Vichy)
  • »The day goes, Johnny Walker comes.« (Johnny Walker Whiskey)
  • “If you love her home, then she loves you too.” (Hornbach Baumarkt)
  • “Rennie cleans up the stomach.” (Magenmittel Rennie)
  • »We give your future a home.« (LBS)

Personification in everyday life

In everyday language, personifications can also be discovered in many areas. It is striking here that they are often associated with weather phenomena. This can be explained by the fact that they come from a time when deities were considered causally responsible for phenomena such as lightning or thunder.


  • “The sky Cries.”
  • “The sun is laughing.”
  • “The wind is shaking the door.”
  • “Nature awakens.”
  • “The storm is raging.”
  • “The day is goodbye.”

Personification, metaphor and allegory

Personification, metaphor and allegory are related. The personification is considered a form of metaphor and also has features of allegory (visualization of the abstract) on. The transitions are often fluid. A clear demarcation of these three style figures is not always easy. When examining stylistic elements in a text, personification must always be examined in the context of metaphor and allegory.

Personification and allegory

An allegory is often an extended personification. An abstract concept such as a vice, a virtue or death is symbolized by actions, attributes or speeches as a person.


“Justitia” is an allegory for justice. To create the allegory, one uses the personification: In Roman mythology, justice is portrayed as a woman with a blindfold. She holds a balance in one hand and a sword in the other. Law should be spoken without regard to the person (blindfold). A judgment is the result of careful consideration of the facts (balance) and the necessary severity (sword).

“Grim Reaper” is an allegory for death. Allegory is based on the personification of death. Since the late Middle Ages death has been portrayed as a human skeleton, naked or barely clothed in a shroud. The skeleton is scary. As a peasant cuts grass or grain (scythe), death severes the thread of life of men.

Personification and metaphor

The personification is a kind of metaphor. A metaphor is characterized by the fact that a word is not used in its actual lexical meaning. It should rather be understood in a figurative sense. As personification ascribes human qualities to the inanimate or to animals, the result is another, a metaphorical level of meaning. Both style figures can also appear together.


“My throat was frightened.”

This sentence contains both a metaphor and a personification. The constricted throat is a picture of existential need and threat and thus a metaphorical turn. At the same time, the abstract feeling of fear is assigned a human behavior. She “acts” like a human hurting another.

“He laughs happiness.”

The sentence states that the person is doing exceptionally well. He is a metaphor for example for success in the job. At the same time the actually inanimate and abstract happiness are humanized. Personification finds expression in “laughing.”

Rhetorical question – Rhetoric stylistic devices

Task and goals of the rhetorical question

Externally, the rhetorical question is comparable to a quite conventional question – a questioning sentence with question marks. In terms of content, she is rather a wolf in sheep’s clothing because she does not fulfill the purpose of a question (“fake question”). The motives of a rhetorical question are completely different.

The aim of the rhetorical question is not the acquisition of information, but an intentional agreement with statements made (“Will we please that?”) Or an influence on the other person (“Do you really believe that?”). The questioner does not expect a sound answer. While a conventional question serves to obtain information, the rhetorical question may already contain the relevant information (directly or indirectly).

Rhetorical questions also serve to provoke, to increase attention and to reach certain conclusions. Furthermore, rhetorical questions are a popular tool to manipulate listeners, to suggest certain facts, to substantiate similarities or to control the course of the conversation. That is why, above all, politics and advertising are strongly influenced by rhetorical questions. In terms of content, such questions make more of a statement and only the question mark at the end of the sentence make them a question.

Construction and typing of rhetorical questions

Basically, a distinction is made between several types of rhetorical questions. For example, the Rostock linguist Schmidt-Radefeldt divided the rhetorical question into its answer content.

Auto-Responsive Rhetorical Question

The question, “Who would break up an apartment, if not a burglar?” Already contains the intended answer. This is therefore a so-called ARQ question (Auto-Responsive Rhetorical Question).

Implicit Rhetorical Question

In the IRQ question (Implicative Rhetorical Question), the question is linked to the desired or possible answer. So “Who would break up a flat?” Would be answered with “burglar.”

The rhetorical question in proud tradition

The use of rhetorical questions runs through the entire history of literature. Already the Roman speaker and writer Marcus Tullius Cicero used the effect of the special question and wrote several rhetorical writings. For example, his four “Speeches Against Catiline” (63 BC) begin with the words “How long do you, Catilina, still abuse our patience?”. This question is aimed at confirmation and approval.

The theologian Martin Luther also knew the importance of the rhetorical question. In his Gesampten teutschen Schrifften we read: “Christ and his apostles were repudiated, should they not also speak my word to me?”

Friedrich Schiller uses the rhetorical question, for example, in his ballad »The Cranes of Ibykus«. It reads: “Who counts the peoples, names the names that came here hospitably?” Here the question is to emphasize the importance of many peoples involved.

In a letter from the writer Georg Büchner, he laments the negative qualities of humanity by saying, “What is that which lies in us, hurt, steals and murders?” This rhetorical question does not expect an answer. Rather, it results from the hopelessness of attempts to change.

The rhetorical question in the present

Image result for literatureLike other stylistic devices, so has the rhetorical question over the centuries asserted itself and was always deliberately used to influence or manipulate the listener or the audience. This makes the rhetorical question the perfect tool for politics and marketing.

Politicians (and their speechwriters) have developed the helpful stylistic device into a craft. Especially political debates or election campaign speeches are interspersed with rhetorical questions. Thus, “how long will Germany still be able to afford this?” May suggest dislike and disapproval to the audience. Also, “Is that still normal?” Causes in the context of political opponents to diminish their political achievements or strategies.

Another prime discipline for the rhetorical question is the advertising industry. In campaigns, clips, commercials and infomercials, rhetorical questions are regularly asked to convince consumers. This works so well that many viewers – even though they know the dubious truth of the ad language – buy the advertised products.

Advertising strategists use different issues. For example, the self-evident desire for good looks is compounded with “Do not you have enough of that too?” Or “Why do not you put an end to it?”. Even the unconscious emphasis on alleged disadvantages can be achieved with a rhetorical question. For example, it says, “Are not you doing your banking business at home?”. And finally, the stylistic device can also be used to bring the consumer into action. Questions such as “Can you really afford to miss this?” Imply the supposed importance of the product and suggest a non-existent urgency.

Rhetorical questions from marketing can even make it into everyday life because of their originality and stay there for many years. A few years ago, for example, Boris Becker made the following statement: “Am I already in it?” From the recent past, it is possible to say here “Are you still living or are you already living?”

A quick look through newspapers, leaflets, the web, or in commercials quickly brings forth many other examples of the rhetorical question.

Sarcasm – Rhetorical stylistic devices

What is sarcasm?

Image result for sarcasmThe rhetorical stylistic device of sarcasm is characterized by acrid sharpness, scorn and malice. The aim of sarcasm is to ridicule and ridicule a person or an opponent’s position.

Sarcasm is not a rhetorical figure in the narrower sense. He refers more to the key and purpose of a text. In order to recognize the stylistic device of sarcasm, one therefore needs knowledge about the context and background of the presented facts. Related stylistic devices are irony and cynicism.

word meaning

The term sarcasm is derived from the Greek word sarkasmós , which literally means “mangling”. The intention of the one who uses the stylistic device of sarcasm is to mangle it with words, that is, to hurt.

Sarcasm in the literature: the satire

In literature, the stylistic device of sarcasm is most often found in satire . Sarcasm is used here to express criticism. This is the case above all in political satire: Bitter scorn and biting ridicule serve to expose social injustices.

A famous literary example of sarcasm is Jonathan Swift’s satire “A Modest Proposal” (1729). Swift makes the government the “humble proposal” to get rid of the poor children of Ireland by eating them. So you solve the same problems of hunger and overpopulation. The target of Swift’s sarcasm is the ruling English upper class.

Sarcasm in journalism and politics: the polemic

Polemics are verbal attacks that are sharp, direct and often insulting. You can find them in political debates and journalistic contributions. Frequently lack objective arguments, this is sometimes alluded to personal weaknesses of the opponent. The offense is intended. Sarcasm is therefore one of the most important stylistic devices in polemics.


The publicist Henryk M. Broder rejects the nuclear agreement with Iran. He writes about the meeting of the Iranian ruler Rouhani with the German vice-chancellor Gabriel:

“That’s what it looks like when a monarch condescends to receive a sales representative.” ( Source )

With the term “commercial agent” (= Gabriel) he degrades the high-ranking politician to the vicarious agent of economic interests. “The monarch” (= Rouhani) “lets himself down.” So there is a power gap. With sarcasm, Broder expresses his criticism of German politics.

Poet conflict and sarcasm

Even conflicts between poets sometimes end in polemic. The goal is to make the opponent or his work ridiculous. In the well-known Goethe polemic of the German critic Wolfgang Menzel (1798 – 1873) there are many examples of sarcasm.

Example: Wolfgang Menzel

“Goethe felt no pain other than insulting vanity.”

The criticism is inappropriate and does not refer to Goethe’s work. Instead, it targets an imputed personal weakness of the poet – a typical feature of sarcasm.

The romantic Novalis (1772 – 1801) is also sarcastic, but not about Goethe’s person. The statement refers to his novel »Wilhelm Meister’s Apprenticeship«:

Example: Novalis

“[…] a fatal and silly book. The joy that it is now over, you feel in the end in full measure. The whole is a nobilitierter novel. Wilhelm Meister’s apprenticeship, or the pilgrimage after the nobility diploma. “

Demarcation to irony

Sarcasm is often confused with irony. Although both stylistic devices are related to each other, they are clearly distinguishable from each other.

Irony is initially neutral in value: what is said expresses the opposite of what is actually meant. Irony can mean ridicule and scorn (1), but also vice versa praise (2). In this way, it is often used by speakers who are reluctant to voice their feelings. An ironist may fear a too “flowery,” sentimental way of speaking.

Example (1): irony as an element of sarcasm

Anja tells her friend Tabea about a date with a boring classmate. She says, “The evening with him was really exciting.”

Anja wants to belittle the fellow students with a sarcastic remark, using irony. She did not find the meeting entertaining, but claims “ironically” the opposite. Irony can therefore be an element of sarcasm. This is called indirect sarcasm.

Direct sarcasm in this example would be an unequivocal reduction of the fellow student, eg. B .: “The evening with him was worse than a visit to a dentist.”

Example (2): irony without sarcasm

Anja visits Tabea, who cooks well and with whom she gets along well. As she leaves, she says, “Your meal was terrible, as usual.”

Anja wants to thank her friend for the evening and compliment her on her cooking skills. The statement is ironic, but not sarcastic. It is rather meant as a loving joke.

Delimitation to cynicism

The distinction between cynicism and sarcasm is more difficult than that between irony and sarcasm . While irony is a true figure of speech, cynicism , like sarcasm, expresses a certain way of speaking.

Sarcasm and cynicism can only be identified if one knows in which context and with what purpose they are used.

Sarcasm always involves the mocking attitude of the speaker or writer towards the addressee. Here, sarcasm can be used selectively . The speaker or author does not have to have a generally pessimistic view of the world or a necessarily negative attitude towards his subject.

Example: sarcasm

“If you are looking for a good, discerning and beautiful woman, you do not look for one but three.” (Oscar Wilde)

The quote is spiteful and funny at the same time. Wilde seems to make the comment more out of desire for the successful punch line than out of a generally misogynistic attitude out. Since there were women in his life whom he admired and loved, this interpretation is close. The knowledge of his biography makes it possible to interpret this sentence as sarcasm.

The use of cynicism, on the other hand, indicates a destructive to inhumane worldview . A cynic attacks social values ​​or violates moral conventions. The taboo break is often accompanied by cynicism.

Example: cynicism

“The low-growing, narrow-shouldered, broad-legged and short-legged sex could only call the beautiful, man-made, intellect-haunted by the sex instinct.” (Arthur Schopenhauer)

From this statement speaks contempt, yes, disgust for women. Schopenhauer, as a “hatred of women” in the history of philosophy, mocks women with this sentence. The quote is not snappy, but mean. Lightness and wit are sought in vain; they are lost in favor of the devastating offense. That is why cynicism is used here.

Synekdoche – Rhetorical Styles

What is a Synekdoche? (Definition)

Image result for rhetoricThe Synekdoche belongs to the tropics . The actually intended word is replaced by another word. The substitution can be a generic term or sub-concept of the actual word.


  • “For the garden party, I expect two bratwursts per nose .” – This refers to a guest, ie a human being; the common conceptual field is the human body.
  • “Listen to the chirping: Nature awakens!” – These are the first birds that can be heard in the spring, so only a part of the comprehensive nature.

A synekdoche can therefore be a narrower term that means a comprehensive one (nose = human) or vice versa (nature = birds). It is always a change in the scope of the term (singulation or summary).

What are tropics?

Tropics is the generic term for a number of stylistic devices . In a trope (also: Tropus) is always an improper and pictorial expression. The meaning is not directly formulated, but replaced by another linguistic phrase. This comes either from the immediate vicinity or from another area of ​​imagination. It is used to make what is said more vivid and lively or to decorate a speech.

The term derives from the Greek tropos = turn . Even in Greek antiquity, tropics were popular as a means of rhetoric or stylistics. They were separated from each other and individually defined. The tropics include allegory , antonomatism, emphasis, euphemism , hyperbole , irony , catachesis (dead metaphor), Litotes , Metalepse, metaphor , metonymy , periphrase, personification , riddles, sarcasm, and synekdoche.

The term “synekdoche” is derived from the Greek synekdoché = to understand, to take along (one expression by another).

Variants of Synekdoche

The best known forms of Synekdoche are Pars pro toto and Totum pro parte . Closely related to this is Singularis pro plurali .

1st part stands for whole (Pars pro toto)

The replacement word almost always has a closer meaning to the source word. This is called Pars pro toto , a part that actually means the whole thing.


  • “Only seven heads came to the lecture.” – heads = persons
  • “He has to feed four hungry mouths .” – Mouths = children
  • “They live under one roof .” – roof = house

2. whole stands for part (Totum per parte)

Sometimes, however, synekdoche may also have a larger term for a smaller one from the same field. This is much less common. Therefore, the term Totum per parte is less known and is used less frequently.


  • “I do not want to use chemistry for cleaning.” – Chemistry = cleaning agent with toxic chemicals
  • “Before the announcement, we light the Christmas tree .” – Christmas tree = Christmas tree candles

3. singular stands for plural (singularis per plurali)

In poetry or advertisement often the replacement of the multiple by the simple appears. Thus, the effect of the statement is reinforced or underlined their general validity.


  • “Noble be man , helpful and good.” (Goethe) – Man = the totality of all human beings
  • “Meica makes the sausage .” (Meica Fleischwarenfabrik) – Sausages = sausages that are relevant to the market

Other subspecies of the Synekdoche can be:

  • Plural stands for singular (Pluralis pro singulari) : ” We Wilhelm , by the grace of God German Emperor, King of Prussia”
  • Genus stands for Species (Genus pro specie) : ” Mortals and Gods”
  • Species stands for species (species pro genere) : »Our daily bread (= essential food )«
  • The following stands for the preceding : » Wine replaces Most «
  • The foregoing stands for the following : » Hops and malt stand for beer «
  • A certain number stands for a particularly large number : “I have a thousand things to do.”
  • Material for final product : »He plays with the iron (= weapon).«

Differentiation to other stylistic devicesImage result for literature

Synekdoche and metaphor

The danger of confusing the Synekdoche with the metaphor is small. The metaphor replaces the actually intended term with one from another conceptual field .


  • “Deserts ship ” for camels – from the field of nautical
  • » Flood of Regulations« for a comprehensive set of rules – from the field of natural phenomena

Synekdoche and metonymy

The Synekdoche is closely related to the metonymy . The transitions are flowing. It is true for both that the actual term comes from the same context as the replacement. If it is about the upper and lower concept, there is a Synekdoche. If the source and replacement words are in a different real relationship to each other, the stylistic device is a metonymy. The relationship can be temporal, spatial or causal, for example.


  • “The Gothic created buildings for the glory of God.” – Gothic means the people of that era
  • ” Berlin does not comment on the topic.” – Berlin means the members of the government.
  • »He likes to quote from his Schiller .« – Schiller means the work (= consequence) of the poet (= cause)

Sometimes synekdochen are also regarded as special forms of metonymy.

Antonomasie as a special case of Synekdoche

In the case of the Antonomasie, the proper name of a historical or known person becomes the generic name; the name stands for people with the same characteristics as the original typical representative.


  • “Demosthenes” = great speakers
  • “Croesus” = rich and generous man
  • “Rockefeller” = billionaire
  • “Hercules” = strong man
  • “Salomon” = wise judge

Cynicism – Rhetorical stylistic devices

What is cynicism?

Related imageCynicism is not a rhetorical figure in the true sense. That is why he can not be defined at the level of grammar or by the proof of certain linguistic means of design.

Rather, we speak of cynicism when the speaker or author represents a characteristic world view or speech . This includes

  • a pessimistic, life-negating basic attitude,
  • the disregard of conventions and the taboo break,
  • the attack and the targeted violation of the addressee.

Origin in the Cynic philosophy

The term cynicism originally goes back to the ancient philosopher’s school of the Cynics (Greek »kyon« = dog) , which is based on Antisthenes (about 445 – 365 BC). The Cynics were convinced that happiness can not be gained through material possessions. They taught absolute indifference and renunciation as a way to freedom.

Such a doctrine inevitably goes hand in hand with the renunciation of the norms of a civilized society; In ancient Greece that was hardly any different from today. With the bite of a dog ( see above ) , the Cynics therefore defended their world view towards state representatives and critics.


Famous is the story of the Cynic philosopher Diogenes (about 405 – 320 BC), who lived in a barrel. At the question of Alexander the Great, with which he could serve him, the radical ascetic answered:

“Just go out of the sun.”

Change of the word meaning

The Kynikern was in the first step to self-discipline . They lived completely undemanding and thus opposed the prevailing social norm of material need satisfaction. In the second step, this lifestyle had to be defended against critics. This relationship explains how the meaning of the word “cynicism” changed over the centuries.

Since the 18th century, the outward-looking aspect of cynicism has been increasingly emphasized in German-speaking countries. The defense of one’s own world view was now at the center of the definition. Often the motto was “Attack is the best defense”. By contrast, the original conditions, simple life and overcoming material needs, took a back seat.

Cynicism as a role versus true cynicism

Cynicism in its present-day meaning always includes a decaying, malicious and inhumane attitude of the speaker or author. That is why one finds hardly any examples of cynicisms in the recognized literary canon.

Writers such as the American Ambrose Bierce (1842 – 1914), who are commonly referred to as cynics, generally turn out to be moralists on closer inspection. They merely take on the role of the cynic to point out social and moral ills.

Ambrose Bierce

Example from the “Dictionary of the Devil” by Ambrose Bierce:

“Amnesty: Generosity of the state to those lawbreakers whose punishment would be too dear to them.”

An example of genuine cynicism in the literature is Curzio Malaparte’s novel The Skin (1949). He plays in 1943 after the liberation of the Germans in Naples and represents the liberated as completely degenerate. Parents prostitute their own children to get money for the black market. From such experiences Malaparte draws the cynical conclusion that war is preferable to peace. Critics accuse the novel of subliminal fascism. His cynicism is enhanced by a kind of desire for the macabre and obscene, with which the most terrible scenes are almost “tasted”.

Cynical figures in the literature

Much more common than such a cynical keynote in the literature, however, there are individual figures that represent a cynical attitude to life. Often their cynicism is exposed and leads to their social and human failure.

Thus, in the moral novels of the eighteenth century, there is usually a cynical villain and seducer who acts as the antagonist of the virtuous protagonist. A famous example is the Vicomte de Valmont from Choderlos de Laclos’ novel “Dangerous Liaisons”.

Differentiation to irony and sarcasm

Especially in colloquial usage cynicism, sarcasm and irony are often equated. Although they are related to each other, they can be clearly distinguished.

Irony , in contrast to cynicism, is a true figure of speech. One recognizes them by the fact that what is said is the opposite of what is actually meant.

Example 1 / irony

When returning the German examinations the teacher says to a lazy student with a miserable note:

“You’ll see how well you’ve prepared yourself again.”

This statement is also sarcastic.

Sarcasm is always mocking and disparaging. He can, but does not necessarily have to appear as irony.

Example 2 / Sarcasm

The German teacher says with a view to the poor exam:

“Your achievements will help you to a lap of honor.”

In cynicism scorn and mockery are increased. It is not only aimed at the offending of the addressee, but is also characterized by the hopeless and pessimistic attitude of the speaker or author.

Example 3 / Cynicism

The German exams in the class are very bad. The teacher commented this (cynically) with a »round robin« on the whole generation of students:

“It’s no wonder that everyone is constantly hanging in front of the TV or playing with the computer. From you will never become something sensible. Poor Germany!”



Ancestors reptiles lived with dinosaurs for millennia, because they survived the extinction 250 ma ago on Earth?

New fossil finds in Brazil. The fossils would be the ancestors of the dinosaurs, the precursors of a species older than the dinosaurs we know. The findings suggest that this ancient lineage coexisted along with the dinosaurs. These fossils Reptiles pre-dinosaurs show a remarkable coexistence of differentiated species during the same periods and for long periods. In mid-November 2016 a group of researchers from Brazil announced the discovery of two types of new pre-dinosaurs that science did not know about.


What was the discovery?

The fossils demonstrated the concurrence of new “lagerpetids” : the Buriolestes schultzi and the Polesinensis Ixalerpeton, that were unearthed in layers of antiquity of about 230 million years, in the Santa Maria Carnian Formation, which is one of the oldest rocky places that It is known and where they have located endless prehistoric footprints of dinosaurs.


What is a Lagerpetids?

This species is a distant relative of the dinosaurs that belongs to the group or branch of the Dinosauromorphos . They are very small in size and length but they already have very developed motor devices. They are remnants of the Late Triassic, and can be found not only in Brazil, but also in other parts of the Earth such as New Mexico, Texas, Arizona, and Africa, since the South American and African continent was millions of years ago together in a single land space in the Pangea era.

This discovery basically demonstrates that this species of pre-dinosaurs or Lagerpetids , such as Polesinensis Ixalerpeton , coexisted along with the most primitive original dinosaurs which could point to this more remote species did not quickly separate from its more “giant offspring” but coexisted for millions of years, something quite curious scientifically speaking.

These revelations were consummated during the reconstruction of the two skeletons that they discovered between the years 200-2010, during the excavations carried out in Rio Grande do Sul, located in the South of Brazil, by the scientists belonging to the University of Sao Paulo, and to the Lutheran University, of Brazil. It was subsequently published in the American scientific journal Current Biology .

According to the professor from the Lutheran University of Brazil: “The remains found are the best preserved specimens that provide information on the origin and evolution of dinosaurs.”

On the other hand the researcher in charge of the University of São Paulo said about the finding : “the place where the dinosaurs were born was in South America and in Africa, since they were the same continent, in which the ancestors of the Dinosaurs originated. “The new pre-dinosaur species were named Buriolestes schultzi and Polesinensis Ixalerpeton .

According to the calculations of the researchers the Buriolestes schultzi could reach a length of 1.4-1.5 meters in height, and a weight of about 7 kg. And the Ixalerpeton polesinensis , could have a height of about 40 cm in length, 15 cm in height, with a weight of about 150 grams. Through the reconstruction of the skeletons it was concluded that these types of pre-dinosaurs were very small predators , that they could move on their two hind legs and feed on their front appendages, as small and agile as a bird of prey. medium size today.

-In the drawing (A) appears in the lower left corner the animal species Polesinensis Ixalerpeton , and to the right of the image would be the Buriolestes schultzi which is larger in size.

These species are the precursors of the dinosaurs, they conserved their smaller bone elements, in the samples that were collected together in the Buriol ravine, located in São João do POLESINE-RS, Brazil; Alemoa members, Santa María Formation; Candelária Sequence, Paraná Basin.

-In this representation (B) you can see how the species could be, Buriolestes schultzi , which would be the animals that are in the upper part of the drawing. And the Ixalerpeton would be placed in the lower part of the drawing.



What did the scientists conclude?

“With this material it is possible to say that the dinosaurs and their precursor lived next to each other, and that the increase of the dinosaurs was more gradual, not a rapid explosion of diversity, which leads other animals to the moment of extinction. “

“The rocks of the region are extremely rich in fossils, which tell the historical groups that reveal the origins of dinosaurs and mammals.”

Therefore the origin of the dinosaurs must have occurred before 230 million years ago in the ancient Gondwana Super Continent , in a land that today corresponds to South America, in this case, Brazil and Argentina.

These lagerpétidos were small reptiles similar to the dinosaurs that arose around 230 million years ago, which would confirm the concurrence of predecessor and dinosáuricas species during the same Triassic period, in the regions of the North of the Pangea Super Continent, Gondwana.


Skulls of pre-dinosaur reptiles found?

New fossil skulls was also found in Brazil. This new finding would represent the reptilian ancestor of the dinosaurs, and evidence the origins of the dinosaurs after the event of mass extinction occurred about 252 million years ago where 90% of life on Earth disappeared .

The fossilized skull would belong to the animal species – Teyujagua Paradoxa – a ferocious reptile lizard found in Rio Grande do Sul State of Sao, in Brazil . This species was similar to the current but not yet developed crocodile. Its sharp teeth, its nose, and its large mouth seem to show that its food would be fish, or small reptiles located in freshwater ponds.

The fossils found in the Permianotriásico – Mesozoic zone, that is to say during the Permian and the Triassic , survived the massive extinction occurred about 252 million years ago. This predecessor of the crocodile is more current than the previous mentioned species of pre-dinosaurs -Buriolestes schultzi and Polesinensis Ixalerpeton.

The Texajagua paradoxa is one of the morphological transitions between the archosauriforms and the most primitive reptiles. This animal, the Teyuajagua Paradoxa, was a small reptile, four-footed, that grew to measure approximately 1.5 meters, and that lived on the banks of lakes and rivers where they hunted small amphibians and reptiles similar to lizards.

In tune with the findings, it can be determined that the pre-dinosaurs – Buriolestes schultzi and Polesinensis Ixalerpeton – were the ancestors of the Teyujagua Paradoxa species, correlating with the genesis of dinosaurs, crocodiles and birds, and although a little risky, it must be said that they are the representatives of a reptilian line that survived the great terrestrial catastrophes, and that “surprisingly” coexisted with the ancestral dinosaurs that we all know.

How did the descendants of dinosaurs develop in gigantic sizes?

What intervention should have been suffered by the different species so that the great development derived from the enormous exotic variety of reptiles and dinosaurs could arise?

The evolution of the dinosaurs of the earth owes its origin to the species, to what Darwin proposed in 1861, or is it through genetic manipulation?