NASA a Great volcanic eruption in “IO” the 3rd moon of Jupiter.

 

NASA a Great volcanic eruption in “IO” the 3rd moon of Jupiter.

March 2014. NASA has shared an incredible photographic image, where one of the largest volcanic eruptions occurred on -io-, the third largest moon on Planet Jupiter, in our Solar System. This moon is considered to be the most volcanic place in the solar system. The images of the eruptions that occurred in -ÍO- have been collected by NASA’s Horizons Spacecraft, as well as its video recording, which shows the moment of the great volcanic eruption.

The volcanic eruption.

-ÍO- Jupiter's most volcanic moon in the Solar System.

-ÍO- Jupiter’s most volcanic moon in the Solar System.

This volcanic eruption occurred in -ÍO- which is located about 6`2 million kilometers away from the earth, according to the measurements recorded in 2006 and 2007.

This Moon of Jupiter, is one of the most active of the Solar System, since it has approximately 400 volcanoes that are active. These volcanoes generate columns of gases that exceed the distance of about 500 kilometers, expanding beyond the surface of the planet.

In 2007 there was already a big explosion, which was recorded and helps us to imagine the dimensions of the force exerted in each volcanic explosion.

The Voyager observed that over -ÍO- the eruptions were simultaneous in nine volcanoes. The remains of the volcanic explosions can extend beyond the 300 kilometers (190 miles) over the Earth’s moon area, ejecting materials at incredible speeds close to the Kilometer per second.

Its lunar terrestrial temperature ranges between -143 ° C (-230 ° F); but the living mass it contains is linked to the volcanic phenomenon and its temperature oscillates between 17 ° C (60 ° F). The researchers believe that the living mass of internal heat could be a large internal lake of lava, similar to what happens on planet Earth.

Video of the explosion 2007 as an example.

Lúna-de-Júpiter-más-volcáni

 

 

Source: NASA.

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What killed the prehistoric Giant Insects?

 

What killed the prehistoric Giant Insects?

Giant prehistoric insects lived under a terrestrial atmosphere infernally rich in oxygen. Dragonflies the size of birds of prey, centipedes larger than men, and a large number of the first vertebrate amphibians as the race, reigned on Earth about 300 million years ago .

Extraordinary beings like the Meganeura, a giant ancestor of our dragonflies, or the Artropleura, another giant ancestor of the centipede, we know them today because of their ancestral traces left before they became extinct.

But he has asked himself what happened so that they would not continue living on Earth. What killed the giant insects? In order to understand the prehistoric world we must first understand was the terrestrial formation.

 

How did life begin on Planet Earth?

We must be clear about how the dry earth developed on the planet . First appeared the first super continent called Vaalbará, later emerging from the depths of the oceans was the super continent Ur that probably formed about 3,000 million years ago in the Archaic Eon . Although Ur could have the size of Australia is considered by science the firstborn super continent of the planet.

Around 1,000 million years ago Ur joined other continents that were emerging from the primitive sea, and in this way the continents Nena and Atlantica , together with Ur, formed the great super continent called Rodinia.

With the passing of the millennia Pangea was established as the macro continent. And around 208 million years ago Pangea began to break into two large blocks called Laurasia and Gondwana .

 

What is the real Timeline of the Earth?

Progressively in time the formation of the first dry lands of the planet or ancient Continents the planetary development would be as follows :

Vaalbará emerged from the firth of the great and unique ocean about 3800 – 3300 million years ago, and this was the first hypothetical super continent that existed on Earth, assuming that the Earth was formed 4,567 million years ago, in the Aeon Archaic

Ur came about 3,000-2,900 million years ago, although not bigger than Australia, it was considered a super continent.

Kenorland emerged 2900 -2600 million years ago.

Nena emerged 2000 – 1800 million years ago.

Atlantica emerged some 1800-1700 million years ago. We are at the end of the Archaic Eon and the beginning of the Proterozoic Eon (Neoarcaic – Sidérico).

Columbia began to emerge 1800 – 1500 million years ago.

Rodinia began to develop about 1300 -1100 million years ago.

Pannotia was developed about 600 – 540 million years ago. Here we are in the Super Continental Cycle where the Proterozoic Eon is ending and the Fanerozoic cycle begins (Ediacárico – Cambrian).

Pangea was configured around 450-350 million years ago.

Laurasia finally was generated 250-200 million years ago.

Gondwana began to appear about 250-200 million years ago.

– About 65 million years ago , the African part of Ur separates forming what is now India .

-In the present, Ur is embedded in the continents of Africa, Australia, India and Madagascar .

-In the future is expected the formation of a Pangea II or Pangea last to be established within 250 million years, according to the theory of continental drift that provides for these continental movements.

The background on the future of Pangea II’s formation arises from the proposition that ” the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints,” the Mormons, formulated that by heavenly revelation their founder Joseph Smith, Jr., was shown the future of the Earth , being able to see a new unique continental union .

In the book of Mormons it reads: And it shall be a voice like the sound of many waters, and like the voice of great thunders that shall bring down the mountains; and the valleys will not be found. He will send to the deep sea, and will be thrown towards the countries of the north, and the islands will be a single earth; and the land of Jerusalem and that of Zion shall return to their own place, and the land shall be as it was in the days before it was divided. “

ciempies-gigante

What was the Earth like 300 million years ago?

As we have said we must first know what that geological period of the planet was like. The period corresponded to the super continent Pangea.

If we had to know why it was called Pangea, we should be aware that this word comes from the Greek prefix “bread” which means “all”, and from the Greek word “gea” which means “soil” or “earth”, so therefore, the literal translation of Pangea would be “All the Earth” as the only continent in the terrestrial globe, in the Carboniferous period of 300 ma ago .

It is speculated that the original form of Pangea was ” U ” or ” C “, and that it could have been distributed through the equator , so its climate would be tropical and humid , although in its innermost regions it would be very dry due to the great lack of precipitation that did not reach the center of the super continent.

 
color-atmosfera-primitiva-c 

What killed the giant insects?

Dragonflies the size of hawks, centipedes larger than men and an odd collection of giant insects and amphibians reigned on Earth 300 million years ago . Extraordinary beings that, like the Meganeura or the Artropleura, we know by the traces that they left before becoming extinct. With time this type of creatures were disappearing or dwarfing.

The reasons for its progressive disappearance still remain very controversial for current science and researchers.

Around 358 million years ago the Continents began to unite forming the super continent Pangea. This happened at the beginning of the Carboniferous period, where Oxygen levels in the air were much higher than today, up to 35% more compared to 21% oxygen at present.

In this period trees appeared, but they were giant , capturing carbon dioxide and releasing large amounts of oxygen into the atmosphere created an ideal environment for the development of the Super Insects of Prehistory. In the swamps a very special habitat was created where some insects could become giants measuring up to 2.4 meters in length , such as El Arthropleura , an ancestor of Centipedes or Millipedes .

These invertebrates , the Arthropleuras, could reach gigantic sizes both in their length of approximately 2.4 meters, and in width that could have a few meters more. They had few predators, but it was clear that it was the largest invertebrate species ever unearthed by researchers.

The giant Arthropleura lived from the Carboniferous period until the early Permian period , along the territory that is now known as North America and Scotland, but about 300 million years ago in time. This species was completely herbivorous, as evidenced by the fossilized remains of its stomach.

Another huge insect of that time is the Giant Scorpion, scientifically known as Pulmonoscorpius kirktonensis which literally means “scorpion with lungs “. This gigantic species lived in the middle of the Lower Carboniferous period and the Devonian period about 400 million years ago, and its fossils were found in what is now Scotland. The giant scorpion formed its home on dry land, and it is believed that it reached about 60 cm in length taking advantage of the hunting of smaller insects.

Hundreds of millions of years ago, giant insects were common on Earth , and for example the Meganeura a genus of extinct insects from about 300 million years ago, related to the current dragonflies and a member of this group the M. permiana was first described by researchers in Kansas in 1937 as having a width of more than half a meter. It is still considered one of the largest known insects that ever existed.

The dragonflies of that time were the largest flying insects ever discovered, and a tireless predator that had no competition in the air since there were still no flying reptiles.

While more than a million species of insects live today, truly giant insects no longer exist. 

 

Why did giant insects disappear?

 

There are two main reasons, although there could be up to three reasons why giant insects disappeared on Earth.

The most important was that the atmosphere had changed. The high levels of oxygen in the atmosphere gave a characteristic dye or sepia color to the sky during the Carboniferous period , but that oxygen also made the air extremely flammable.

It is difficult for us today to imagine one of the many electrical storms that enveloped the immense forests and their inhabitants with great ease during this period, and the large forest fires were commonplace and yet insect Giant Insects thrived in this infernal environment.

But later when the fires and the electrical rains became less frequent these amazing creatures simply disappeared, and scientists today are trying to determine what caused their extinction.

Over the course of millions of years, our planet’s air was warmer, more humid and contained more oxygen . During the Carboniferous and Permian periods, Earth’s air contained 31-35% oxygen, compared to only 21% oxygen in the air today.

Oxygen levels are especially important for insects because, although they do not have lungs, they did depend on oxygen flowing through a series of openings in their bodies called spiracles that connect directly to tissues that do need oxygen.

But there is also another reason why the giant insects disappeared , and this arose as the ancient dinosaurs evolved the ability to fly , becoming prehistoric birds , and feeding on insects, they put the limitation on the large size of insects by cause of predation and competition for habitat.

The oldest known bird is Archeopteryx , appearing about 150 million years ago. Birds proved to be faster and more agile than giant insects. The change in the size of the insects was gradual, and these gradual changes in the size of the insects fit with the progressive evolution of the primitive birds of that time.

Hundreds of millions of years where giant insects were the most common beings on Earth. The decrease of the atmospheric oxygen and the increase of the birds contributed finally to the disappearance of these archaic insects. 

A hostile world full of electrical storms that could easily burn the immense forests and all its inhabitants with large forest fires were commonplace and yet large insects thrived. Finally came the disappearance of these amazing creatures, “The giant dragonflies and the huge cockroaches common in the Carboniferous simply ceased to be giants.

Only a large tracheal system could develop due to the higher concentration of oxygen in the air of the Carboniferous period where insects needed smaller respiratory systems and this allowed them to increase in size, but as the atmosphere changed the giant insects had to progressively reduce their size over millions of years of evolution and not all of them survived the changes of 290 million years ago where oxygen levels dropped from 35% to 23% near the current level.

Pangea had already formed a super continent that stretched from pole to pole surrounded by a single ocean , and this new territory was subject to extreme weather conditions , especially in the heart of the continent , where drastic changes in temperature occurred , deserts appeared .

But in the equator the heavy rains allowed the great carboniferous forests to survive during this period of deep climatic changes marked by the monsoons and the warming of the atmosphere.

In this period , a type of fungus appears in the bark of the trees, and this small fungus uses an enzyme to break down the wood gradually, as well as the remains of dead plants and trees that decompose when they accumulate in the soil to form coal.

The fungi prevented the accumulation of carbon in the subsoil so that this carbon began to be released into the atmosphere and the proportion of oxygen in the air was gradually reduced with important consequences for the environment. 

 

How was the Carboniferous Period of the great insects?

The Carboniferous Period the time of the Gandes Bosques de Ferns and the appearance of the Frogs. The appearance of fish during the previous period marked the highest point in the evolution of marine life. From this point forward, the evolution of terrestrial life becomes increasingly important. At the beginning of this period, the scenario is almost ideally prepared for the appearance of the first terrestrial animals.

220,000,000,000 years ago, a large part of the continental land areas , including most of North America, was above the water level, and the land was crowded with lush vegetation ; this was indeed the age of the ferns. Carbon dioxide was still present in the atmosphere but in increasingly smaller degrees.

A short time later the central portion of North America was flooded, creating two great interior seas. The highlands of the Pacific and Atlantic coasts were located just beyond the current seacoasts. These two seas joined at this time, intermingling their different forms of life, and the union of this marine fauna marked the beginning of the rapid and global decline of marine life and the beginning of the subsequent period of terrestrial life.

210,000,000 years ago Arctic seas of warm water covered most of North America and Europe. The polar waters of the south flooded South America and Australia, while Africa and Asia were extremely high.

When the seas were at their peak, a new evolution suddenly took place. Abruptly the first terrestrial animals appeared . There were numerous species of these animals that could live both on land and in water. These air-breathing amphibians had developed from arthropods , whose swim bladders had evolved in lungs.

From the brackish waters of the seas snails, scorpions and frogs crawled on the land. Nowadays frogs continue to lay their eggs in an aquatic environment, and their offspring have at first the shape of small fish, the tadpoles. This period could well be known by the age of the frogs that were the ancestors of the later reptiles .

A short time later the giant insects sprouted for the first time and, along with the spiders, scorpions, cockroaches, crickets and cicadas, soon spread throughout the continents of the world.

The dragonflies were more than seventy-five centimeters wide . Thousands of cockroach species were developed, and some were ten centimeters long.

Two groups of echinoderms developed particularly , and are actually the fossils guides of this era. The echinoderms (Echinodermata) are marine metazoan animals that present a dermatoesqueleto with scattered calcareous granules or juxtaposed calcareous plates. Sometimes, these plates have spines. On the other hand, echinoderms are characterized by their pentagonal radiated symmetry (a body with five regions around a central disk). Starfish, Sea Urchin .

The large sharks that fed on the shell animals were also well developed, and for more than five million years they dominated the oceans .

The climate was still temperate and stable ; Marine life changed very little. The freshwater fish were developing and the trilobites were nearing extinction. Corals were scarce, and much of the limestone was made by crinoids.

The deposits of this primitive coal age are 150 to 600 meters thick , and consist of sandstone, shale and limestone. The oldest strata of this period provide the fossils of animals, plants, both marine and terrestrial , along with much gravel and sediment from the basins. Little exploitable coal is found in these older strata. These deposits across Europe closely resemble those that sat in North America.

Towards the end of this time the land of North America was rising. There was a brief interruption, and the sea covered again half of its previous beds. This was a short-lived flood, and soon after, most of the land had already risen above the water. South America was still united with Europe through Africa.

This time witnessed the beginning of the Vosges, the Black Forest and the Ural Mountains . The remains of other older mountains are found throughout Britain and Europe.

During this period the proto reptile gliders began to develop. They climbed and flew eating insects of those times.

200,000,000 years ago began the most active stages of the Carboniferous period . During the previous twenty million years the primitive deposits of coal were being established, but at this time more extensive activities of coal formation were already underway. The duration of the actual epoch of coal deposit was just over twenty-five million years.

The land rose and fell periodically due to the changing sea level caused by activities at the bottom of the oceans. This uneasiness of the crust, the settlement and ascent of the earth, together with the prolific vegetation of the coastal marshes, contributed to the production of vast deposits of coal , which is why this period is known by the Carboniferous period . And the climate was still tempered throughout the world.

The coal layers alternated with shale, stone and conglomerate. These deposits of coal on the central and eastern parts of the United States have a thickness that varies from twelve to fifteen meters. But much of these deposits were washed away during the subsequent land elevations. In some parts of North America and Europe, coal-containing strata are 5,500 meters thick.

180,000,000 years ago , the Carboniferous period was closed , during which coal had been formed all over the globe – in Europe, India, China, North Africa and the Americas. At the end of the coal formation period, North America east of the Mississippi Valley rose, and most of this section has since remained above sea level. This period of land elevation marks the beginning of the modern mountains of North America, both in the Appalachian and western regions. The volcanoes were active in Alaska and California and in the mountain-forming regions of Europe and Asia. Eastern America and Western Europe were united by the continent of Greenland.

The elevation of land began to modify the marine climate of the preceding ages and to substitute for it the principles of continental climate , less benign and more variable .

The plants of these times were sporophytes , and the wind could propagate their spores to great distances and wide ranges. The trunks of the carboniferous trees used to be of a diameter of more than two meters and often of a height of almost forty meters . Modern ferns are true relics of these past ages.

In general, this was the time when freshwater organisms developed; Previous marine life changed very little. But the characteristic and most important feature of this period was the sudden appearance of frogs and their multiple cousins. As for life , the main characteristics of the carboniferous age were ferns and frogs .

The particularities of this new period were due not so much to the cooling of the earth’s crust or to the long absence of volcanic action , but to an unusual combination of common and current influences that existed from before – restraints of the seas and elevation in increase of huge land masses. The temperate marine climate of times past was disappearing, and the continental type of more severe climate was developing at an accelerated rate.

170,000,000 years ago there were major changes and evolutionary adjustments over the entire face of the earth. The earth was rising all over the globe as the ocean beds sank. Mountain ranges appeared isolated from mountains.

The crust of the earth folded considerably during this period of land elevations. These were times of continental emergence, with the exception of the disappearance of certain land bridges, including the continents that had for so long united South America with Africa and North America with Europe.

Gradually the lakes and inland seas dried up all over the world. Mountainous and isolated regional glaciers began to sprout, especially over the southern hemisphere, and in many regions the glacial deposit of these local ice formations can be found even among some of the upper and later coal deposits. Two new climatic factors came into play-freezing and dryness. Many of the highest regions of the earth had become arid and barren.

Throughout these times of climate change, great variations also occurred in terrestrial plants . Seed plants that provided a better food source for terrestrial animal life that would increase in the future appeared for the first time. The insects suffered a radical change . Rest or hibernation stages were developed to meet the demands of apparent death during winter and droughts.

The frogs reached their climax in the previous age and declined rapidly , but survived, for they could live long even in the puddles and evaporating ponds of these remote and extremely exasperating times.

About 140,000,000 years ago , the first hermaphrodite flowers appeared on Earth , as it had male organs (stamens) as feminine (carpels), as well as multiple spirals of petals organized in groups of three. The current plants are the result of the simplification of that ancestral model of the first. Most of the current plants are the result of the simplification of those 20 million years of floral evolution.

160,000,000 years ago the land was covered with vegetation adapted to support landanimal life, and the atmosphere had become ideal for animal respiration. In this way he finishes the period of the reduction of marine life and those painful times of biological adversity where all forms of life were eliminated.

The end of this period of the long biological tribulation , the Permian period , also marks the end of the long Paleozoic era , which covered 1/4 of the planetary history , that is, 250,000,000 years.

During the long ages when the earth was not capable of sustaining life, before containing an atmosphere sufficiently balanced in oxygen to support higher terrestrial animals , at that time the Earth could only maintain giant insects and amphibians in primary development , for then the sea protected and nourished the primitive life of the kingdom. At this moment, the biological biodiversity of the sea is progressively diminishing giving way to the second stage of evolution that is unfolding on Earth the Primitive Age of the Reptiles .

140,000,000 years ago , two sudden appearances coincided: the first flowers on the planet, and fully developed reptiles, after the brief duration of the two pre-reptilian ancestors that had developed in Africa during the previous era. 

el-Archaeopteryx-la-primera

These reptiles evolved rapidly as dinosaurs-reptiles , crocodiles, scaly reptiles, marine snakes and flying reptiles. That caused his transient predecessors to quickly disappear.

Subsequently the herbivorous reptiles were developed and with the passage of time several million years later, the first non-placental mammals appeared.

120,000,000 years ago a new phase of the age of reptiles began. The great event of this period was the evolution and decline of the dinosaurs. The End of the Age of the Reptiles.

Much later, 60,000,000 years ago , although the terrestrial reptiles were in decline, the dinosaurs continued as monarchs of the land, now taking the lead the most agile and active types of carnivorous dinosaurs of the jumping variety similar to the Kangaroos This period is known as the age of the birds, as well as the age of decay of the reptiles.

 

 

 

Neologism – Rhetorical stylistic devices

What is a neologism?

Image result for neologismNeologism is the term used to describe new words, new words or new meaning. Neologisms are part of every living language. At the same time, neologism is one of the basic stylistic devices in literature: in particular, it can underline the originality of a text. The advertising also uses new words to address the consumer in a targeted and unmistakable manner.

  • Ostalgia = yearning for life in the GDR, formed from East (Germany) and nostalgia
  • Newspeak = the language adapted for political purposes in George Orwell’s dystopian novel »1984«
  • April Fresische = loud self-promotion since the 1960s, the smell of the fabric softener »Lenor«

term origin

The term neologism can be derived from the Greek néos = new and lógos = word. The definition is so neologism or a new word.

Where do neologisms come from?

In general, neologisms fill in linguistic gaps: they arise in a language community wherever a thing, a circumstance, a feeling, or something like that. can not or insufficiently named using known terms. Neologisms can also express things in a simplified way, or transfer words that already exist to new situations (a well-known example of a linguistic reprinting is »surfing«).

1. Youth language

The youth language is one of the most important sources of new words or reinterpretations. Since 2008, Langenscheidt-Verlag uses a (controversial) survey to determine the youth word of the year.

  • Hartzen = actually: live by Hartz IV; Meanwhile, the verb is also used as a synonym for idle or laze; Youth Word of the Year 2009
  • chill = relax, relax
  • Smombie = someone who focuses all his attention on his smartphone and, like a zombie, does not notice anything of his surroundings; Youth Word of the Year 2015

2. Foreign languages

The German language contains numerous words that have their origin in English. Camping is such a word – it was in 1941 for the first time in Duden. 50 years later, in 1991, the laptop was included in the German dictionaries. In some recent new words the (Germanized) Anglicism is even more noticeable.

  • trade = trade; trading on the stock exchange (with securities)
  • Insider trading = trades where investors use information that is not publicly available for economic gain
  • flashing = inspiring; the word originally comes from the musical jargon; You can also be “flashed” by an unusual encounter or a great present
  • fluffy = light, airy, fluffy; can refer to a cake as well as a hairstyle, for example

From the so-called Kiezdeutsch of young people with a migrant background, Arabisms also find their way into the German language.

  • yalla = fast
  • Cho = brother

3. Digitization

Digitalisation brought its own terms – mostly from English: words such as »download«, »swiping« or »liken« are firmly rooted in everyday life today. Particularly interesting is the emergence of independent verbs in the wake of Internet services.

  • Googling = researching on the Internet with a search engine, mostly Google®, founded in 1998
  • tweeting = publishing Twitter messages (tweets) via the Twitter® platform, founded in 2006
  • Tindern = get to know people by using the dating app for the smartphone Tinder®, founded in 2012

4. Society, politics and science

The ever-changing world needs and invents new words in all areas. Developments in technology, in medicine and psychology or in economics and politics are accompanied by a change of language.

  • Deceleration or decelerate = an ever faster development, activity o. Ä. deliberately slow down (his everyday life, family life, the financial markets)
  • Event gastronomy = a restaurant or other gastronomic business offering artistic performances in addition to the actual food
  • Loyalty card = a card valid for a long period of time, which the company issues to a customer, and which grants it different purchasing benefits
  • Grexit , Brexit = Case words from the first letters of an EU country, in the example Greece (Greece) or Great Britain (Britain) and the English word for exit exit, which mean leaving the EU

5. Advertising

Occasionally, terms that have been invented by creative copywriters to focus attention on a particular product are coming out of their tight context. They are then also used as neologism in “normal life”.

Well-known examples:

  • pores
    from the advertisement of “Clearasil” (especially thorough)
  • april fresh
    from the advertisement of »Lenor« (springlike lightness and freshness)
  • unbreakable
    from advertising (for packaging that is indestructible)
  • have the tiger in the tank
    from the Esso advertisement (means a car or a person that is particularly strong, fast or powerful)

Neologisms dictionary

Image result for writingIn the year 2004 volume 11 of the writings of the institute for German language appeared. It is a big dictionary with neologisms. The authors have collected about 700 new wordings that found their way into the German general language in the 1990s.

A small volume from Duden-Verlag introduces (original) neologisms under the title: »Our Words of the Decade«, which were added to the Duden vocabulary between 2000 and 2010. These included, for example, “Chai Latte”, “Alcopop”, “E-learning” or “talent-free”.

How are neologisms formed?

Neologisms come about in different ways. The theory of language, an area of ​​literary science, has investigated this. Usually neologisms arise

  • by composition (= composition) of independent words, for example »Dosenpfand« or »Genmais«;
  • by derivation of new words from an original word using an affix, for example “cybercrime” or “cybersex”;
  • by abbreviation , for example »SMS«, »Zivi« or »FAQs«;
  • by contraction of existing known elements, for example »teleworkplace«;
  • through the Germanization of foreign words, for example »escapism« (escapism), »download«, »update« or »liken«;
  • By shifting the meaning of meaning : A “purpose” was originally a nail; today, according to Duden, it denotes “the motive and goal of an action.”

Criticizing the language change in everyday life

The language change is critically accompanied by several institutions. The Society for German Language (GfdS) is an association funded by the Conference of Ministers of Education. He is committed to the care of the German language. In addition, he explores the changing language and makes recommendations for language use. Since 1971, the GfdS has chosen a “word of the year”. In 2016, neologism was “post-fatal” (= according to the facts, the term describes a time in which feelings or “perceived truths” become more important than facts or the truth itself).

The association “German Language” is much more vociferously lamenting the decline of the German language and, for example, vehemently defending itself against the entry of anglicisms. But since language is a reflection of social change, a change of language can not be stopped by anything.

Neologism in literature

Neologism is one of the basic stylistic-rhetorical devices in literature. Writers use him to

  • to differentiate the literary language from everyday language;
  • to emphasize the own and unmistakable style;
  • to nuance the meaning of a statement or text;
  • to have a fantastic language content in science fiction or fantasy literature.

Examples from the poetry:

“O taumelbunte Welt”
from Hermann Hesse’s poem “Transience” (1919)

“If […] you appear to us on the earth’s sky ,
Our beautiful future Morning red! «
from Hermann Hesse’s poem “Peace” (1914)

»I woke up so happy «
from the poem “Morgenwonne” by Joachim Ringelnatz

“The corridor is pollinated with ash seed .”
from Gottfried Keller’s poem “Land in the autumn” (1879)

Examples from the prose:

” Half and half god ”
from Hermann Hesse’s novel »Steppenwolf« (1927)

“I play ‘chess in the truest sense of the word, while the others, the real chess players, chess’ earnestly ‘ to introduce a daring new word into the German language.”
from Stefan Zweig’s “Schachnovelle” (1942)
The unusual thing about this example is that Stefan Zweig refers the reader to neologism extra.

Examples from science fiction and fantasy:

” Newspeak ”
from George Orwell’s dystopian novel 1984 (1948)

“Newspeak” is the official language of the fictitious state of Oceania and the generic term under which Orwell introduces other neologisms such as Engsoz, Gedankendelikt, or Doppeldenk.

» Zamonia «
from Walter Moers’ novel »The Thirteen and a Half Years of Captain Bluebear«
In his novel series from the fictional Zamonien, Walter Moers describes a whole universe with the help of neologisms. As an example, the “booklings” (a form of existence that reveres books), the “terrors” (terrible creatures that have alleged properties of witches) or the “ormen” (a guessing game).

The neologism in advertising

Advertising is designed to draw the attention of potential customers to a particular product. In doing so, creativity in dealing with language is required. Advertising is therefore a rich source of language creation .

  • Discover the new plant life (Rama margarine)
  • NOVOTEL is an artificial word from Novus (Latin: new) and hotel
  • Best Ager = Target group that is considered particularly demanding and consumer friendly

The advertising industry is not just constantly inventing new terms to influence people and markets. Also found frequently are new words . In doing so, familiar words are reassembled to create positive associations in the consumer.

  • Cuddle wool (detergent Perwoll)
  • crispy (Duplo chocolate bar)
  • The Media Markt markets invite you for early shopping (just a bargain for breakfast)

Differentiation from other stylistic devices

Archaism as the opposite of neologism

Every living language is subject to natural change: new concepts emerge while others disappear from the language. Language changes not only by neologisms, but also by their opposite, the archaisms. An archaism refers to a linguistic expression that has become unfashionable . He comes from another time and is uncommon nowadays. The Duden characterizes such concepts as linguistically obsolete or obsolete .

Examples of archaisms:

  • Fried fish:
    (obsolete) for teenage girls
  • Wickelkind:
    (obsolete) for child
  • uncle
    (obsolete) for uncle
  • pupil:
    (obsolete) for child, pupil

Occasionalism as possible precursor of a neologism

Occasionalism is a concept of opportunity that is formed, so to speak, out of state and in relation to the situation . For example, an infant who always drinks too hastily and spits out some of the milk is affectionately called a “small spit” by his parents.

If the term were to spread to other parents and later to society, “occultism” could turn “spitting” into a neologism. This could then even pass into the general usage.

However, once established in the language, strictly speaking, it should no longer be called neologism. New word formation can thus usually be viewed only in a fixed temporal context.

Metonymy – Rhetorical stylistic devices

What is a metonymy? (Definition)

Metonymy is a stylistic device that belongs to the tropics . As with all tropics, the terms used are replaced by others. The improper objects are in immediate, real proximity to the intended ones. The limit of the intended object is thus shifted.

What are tropics?

Tropics is the generic term for a number of stylistic devices . In a trope (also: Tropus) is always an improper and pictorial expression. The meaning is not directly formulated, but replaced by another linguistic phrase. This comes either from the immediate vicinity or from another area of ​​imagination. It is used to make what is said more vivid and lively or to decorate a speech.

The term derives from the Greek tropos = turn . Even in Greek antiquity, tropics were popular as a means of rhetoric or stylistics. They were separated from each other and individually defined. The tropics include allegory , antonomatism, emphasis, euphemism , hyperbole , irony , catachesis (dead metaphor), Litotes , Metalepse, metaphor , metonymy, periphrase, personification , riddles, sarcasm, and synekdoche .

The term derives from the Greek metonymia = name swap (from meta = to and onyma = name).

Examples

  • ” The mustache comes in.” – Instead of a man who enters the room, only his mustache is called. Part of him replaces the whole man.
  • ” The left corner, please.” – When a teacher calls a student like that, it does not mean the corner. Instead of the space content, the room is called.
  • “Let’s have a drink.” – It’s not the vessel, it’s the content, like beer or wine.

Relationship and differences to the metaphor

Metonymy is closely related to the metaphor. In metaphor, the picture is based on a comparability of different spheres of meaning. In the metaphor , the original and the new word are thus in a relationship of similarity .

A metaphor for …

  • Stupidity: donkey
  • dying: going home or falling asleep
  • be in love: have spring fever

A metonymy for …

  • Stupidity: brainlessness
  • die: go to the grave
  • be in love: have weak knees

Unlike the metaphor, metonyms therefore do not search for the substitute word in a different sphere than the source word. Instead, a metonymy replaces the source word with a term that is in a real relationship to it. This relationship can be temporal, spatial or logical. The initial word and the substitute word can originate from the same world of experience and belong to the material, sensible reality.

example

    Political journalism is sometimes called the “White House” when referring to the US President or the US government. Because the President of the United States resides with his family in the White House in Washington, there is a concrete spatial relationship between source word and replacement word.

Original and new concepts in metonymy are therefore related to each other (contiguity).

Possible affiliation relationships

Image result for writingThe type of membership of output word and replacement word can be further specified and classified. Linguists distinguish numerous groups of contexts according to the pattern: “X stands for Y”. The transitions between the groups are occasionally fluid, as are the transitions to the metaphor.

1. person stands for thing / content:

Examples

  • “Our teacher wants us to read Schiller.” (Schiller = Schiller’s books or works)
  • »He knows the Beatles like no one else« (the Beatles = the music of the Beatles)

2nd place stands for person (s):

Examples

  • »Brazil play Portugal.« (Brazil = Brazilian player / team, Portugal = Portuguese player / team)
  • “Rome chooses a new government.” (Rome = the citizens of Rome)

3. Time stands for person (s):

Examples

  • »The Renaissance rediscovered the cultural achievements of Greek and Roman antiquity.« (Renaissance = renaissance artists, artists of the Renaissance)
  • “The post-war period did not care about the traumatized, but was busy with the reconstruction.” (Post-war period = people of the post-war period, survivors of the war)

4. Vessel stands for content:

Examples

  • “He devoured his plate greedily.” (Plate = meal, meal)
  • “She drinks two cups every afternoon.” (Two cups = two cups of coffee)

5. Deity stands for its attributed properties and functions:

Examples

  • “Gaia will soon be completely destroyed.” (Gaia = Greek goddess of the earth, thus stands for the planet Earth)
  • “Fortuna was well-intentioned to the athlete.” (Fortuna = Roman goddess of fortune and fortune, so in the example of luck and success)

6th episode stands for cause:

Examples

  • “Pale death” (not death is pale, but the dead)
  • “The pale fear” (not the fear is pale, but the fearful)

7. Cause is the result:

Examples

  • »The sun illuminates the hall.« (Sun = light of the sun)
  • »Winter causes heating costs to rise again« (winter = cold)

8. Abstract is concretum:

Examples

  • ” Young people are hardly interested in classical literature anymore.” (Youth = young people)
  • »The good taste is at home in France« (the good taste = people with good taste)

9. Material represents subject:

Examples

  • “I prefer to wear wool rather than cotton.” (Wool or cotton = wool or cotton clothing)
  • “He read the paper in peace.” (Paper = writing)

Part 10 stands for the whole (Latin: Pars pro toto):

Examples

  • “A 100-soul village” (soul = person or inhabitant)
  • »He counted 70 Lenze« (Lenz = year)

Delimitation to Synekdoche

The synekdoche is also a trope. She is closely related to metonymy. The transitions are flowing. A clear demarcation is often not possible. The Synekdoche also denotes a special membership relationship between the output word and the replacement word. The replacement word always has the same conceptual content in Synekdoche.

Within the term field, a distinction is made according to the scope . Therefore, “Pars pro toto” (see above) can also be considered as a form of synekdoche. Sometimes this improper figure of speech, in which a part stands for the whole, is even referred to as an independent stylistic device.

Examples

  • »At home five hungry mouths are waiting for him.« (Maul = child)
  • “Give us our daily bread today.” (Bread = food, means of life)

Metaphor – Rhetorical Styles

What is a metaphor? (Definition)

The stylistic metaphor belongs to the tropics: the actual word is replaced by a pictorial expression from another world of concepts. A metaphor is therefore not always clear. It has to be interpreted. Although metaphors can be explained by paraphrasing, some of their impact and / or meaning may be lost.

What are tropics?

Tropics is the generic term for a number of stylistic devices . In a trope (also: Tropus) is always an improper and pictorial expression. The meaning is not directly formulated, but replaced by another linguistic phrase. This comes either from the immediate vicinity or from another area of ​​imagination. It is used to make what is said more vivid and lively or to decorate a speech.

The term derives from the Greek tropos = turn . Even in Greek antiquity, tropics were popular as a means of rhetoric or stylistics. They were separated from each other and individually defined. The tropics include allegory , antonomatism, emphasis, euphemism , hyperbole , irony , catachesis (dead metaphor), Litotes , Metalepse, metaphor, metonymy , periphrase, personification , riddles, sarcasm, and synekdoche .

The famous ancient Greek philosopher and naturalist Aristotle (384 – 322 BC) founded the term metaphorá in his works »Rhetoric« and »Poetics«. Translated, it means transmission (from Greek metà phérein = carry elsewhere).

Examples

  • “Life Clock”
    Here, the clock is transmitted as a device for measuring time on the course of human life .
  • “broken heart”
    We talk about a “broken heart” when someone has a big heartache. Here a damaged part of the body is used as a symbol of painful emotions ; both conceptual worlds flow together in this way.

How are metaphors formed?

Metaphors are created by

  • an analogy in the outer form (for example, “Glimmerstängel” – a cigarette reminiscent of the stem of a plant);
  • a similar function (eg »chair leg« – the piece of furniture stands on wooden sticks like humans and animals on their legs);
  • the merging of ideas (eg “song of the waves” – the sound of the water is reminiscent of music).

Unconscious and conscious metaphors

Many metaphors have become an integral part of our everyday language over time. We use it unconsciously . The use of some such symbols is even necessary , as there are no other names for the subject. They fill in gaps in the language. Such a word is also called a dead metaphor or catachrese (from Greek katachresis = abuse), because a transmission of meaning does not take place.

Dead metaphors

  • “Bottleneck”
  • “Spine”
  • “Letterhead”
  • “Fluency”
  • “Table leg”
  • “Bonnet”

The unconscious metaphors include those images that have faded through frequent use. Although other names could be found for them, but the use of the symbols has become a habit. The metaphor is thus a synonym for the other term .

Faded metaphors

  • »Kaderschmiede« (= elite university)
  • “Broken heart” (= heartache)
  • »Glittering party« (= exuberant party)
  • »Eagle eyes« (= very good eyesight)
  • »Hangover breakfast« (= meal that is supposed to drive off the effects of drinking alcohol)
  • “War weariness” (= lack of will to continue to wage war)

On the other hand, there is the conscious, real metaphor . It is used specifically to achieve a specific effect. Such a transfer is absolutely new. The audience is surprised by the pictorial expression.

Conscious metaphors

  • »The European House« (from architecture)
  • »Foundation of society« (from construction / architecture)
  • “Flame of the Spirit” (from the everyday world)
  • »Meltdown in the banking system« (from nuclear physics)
  • »Stream of Life« (from geography / topography)

The metaphor in epic, lyric and drama

In all three forms of literature, metaphorics plays a key role as a rhetorical figure. In addition to metaphors familiar to everyday readers, translated terms are often created by the author. These terms are therefore initially unknown. The context of meaning is easy or difficult to grasp depending on prior knowledge. If the interpretation succeeds, metaphors contribute to the understanding of the text. The clear description creates the opportunity to better understand what is meant without elaborate explanations. In particular, the emotional meaning can be detected more easily.

A well-understood metaphor makes a text easy to read, entertaining and memorable. If their purpose is to decrypt only with difficulty, the text becomes difficult to understand.

Examples

  • “Knights of the napkins”
    Thomas Mann: “Mario and the Wizard”
  • “Last Homestead of Feeling”
    Rainer Maria Rilke: “Exposed on the mountains of the heart”
  • “Dear Torch”
    Friedrich Schiller: “Maria Stuart”

The metaphor in poetry and modernity

Image result for writingMetaphors increase the poetics of texts by drawing pictures with words. An example would be the »clean sky«. In a poetry analysis, the interpretation of metaphors plays an important role.

Examples

  • “The angel who conceals himself in you” (Angel stands metaphorically for the beloved)
    Eduard Möricke: “To the Beloved”
  • “A rose-colored spring weather
    Laid on the lovely face « (happiness and love, being in love are reflected on her face)
    Johann Wolfgang von Goethe: “Welcome and farewell”

Modern authors often use metaphors in ways that are difficult or impossible to decode. The incomprehensible picture forces one to pause while reading. Then the textual environment in which the metaphor stands is more important than the meaning of the transmitted expression.

The metaphor in politics and advertising

Metaphors are also popular in political rhetoric . They make speeches memorable and interesting and make pictures in the minds of the audience. In the face of the financial crisis, for example, politicians speak of the “tide change”. As the listeners visualize, a complicated process is easier for them to grasp.

Examples from politics

  • “The climate in the coalition negotiations was good.” (From meteorology)
  • “Scholz wants to continue the course of his predecessor.” (From the sea)
  • »The course is set for a change.« (Out of circulation)

In advertising , metaphors are indispensable because they convey feelings very well. This is helpful to encourage consumers to buy. In addition, the viewer and potential customer remember memorable images and allegorical phrases better than a linguistic statement.

Examples from advertising

  • »Red Bull lends wings .« (Energy Drink)
  • »The yellow angel .« (ADAC)
  • ” You can build on these stones . « (Schwäbisch Hall)

Differentiation to other stylistic devices

Metaphor and comparison

A metaphor can be recognized by the fact that it is used without further explanation or reference words. It speaks for itself, and the reader or listener must open up the relationship between the two conceptual worlds themselves. In a comparison, on the other hand, this connection is represented by words, often by “how.”

Examples of a comparison

  • “The young woman is swift as a deer.”
  • “He rides like the wind.”
  • “The air is as soft as silk.”

Metaphor and metonymy

A metaphor transfers the actual concept into a foreign realm of meaning. There is originally no connection between the two conceptual worlds: metaphor for love = float on clouds . In metonymy, on the other hand, one word stands for a neighboring one: the leather hit the post; Leather = the football. (Here is the material for the object.)

Further examples of a metonymy

  • »Berlin abolishes the property tax.« (Berlin = the Federal Government)
  • “Goethe is on the top left corner of the shelf.” (Goethe = the works or the books of the poet)

Metaphors from different areas

  • “Tops the sea”
  • “creative head”
  • “Wall of Silence”
  • “Fist on the neck” (inevitable threat)
  • “Power of Darkness” (Forces of Evil)
  • “Desert Ship” (picture for a camel)
  • “Ugly duckling” (expression for a little attractive person)
  • »See something through the pink glasses« (to judge something too positively)

Metaphor – Rhetorical Styles

What is a metaphor? (Definition)

The stylistic metaphor belongs to the tropics: the actual word is replaced by a pictorial expression from another world of concepts. A metaphor is therefore not always clear. It has to be interpreted. Although metaphors can be explained by paraphrasing, some of their impact and / or meaning may be lost.

What are tropics?

Tropics is the generic term for a number of stylistic devices . In a trope (also: Tropus) is always an improper and pictorial expression. The meaning is not directly formulated, but replaced by another linguistic phrase. This comes either from the immediate vicinity or from another area of ​​imagination. It is used to make what is said more vivid and lively or to decorate a speech.

The term derives from the Greek tropos = turn . Even in Greek antiquity, tropics were popular as a means of rhetoric or stylistics. They were separated from each other and individually defined. The tropics include allegory , antonomatism, emphasis, euphemism , hyperbole , irony , catachesis (dead metaphor), Litotes , Metalepse, metaphor, metonymy , periphrase, personification , riddles, sarcasm, and synekdoche .

The famous ancient Greek philosopher and naturalist Aristotle (384 – 322 BC) founded the term metaphorá in his works »Rhetoric« and »Poetics«. Translated, it means transmission (from Greek metà phérein = carry elsewhere).

Examples

  • “Life Clock”
    Here, the clock is transmitted as a device for measuring time on the course of human life .
  • “broken heart”
    We talk about a “broken heart” when someone has a big heartache. Here a damaged part of the body is used as a symbol of painful emotions ; both conceptual worlds flow together in this way.

How are metaphors formed?

Metaphors are created by

  • an analogy in the outer form (for example, “Glimmerstängel” – a cigarette reminiscent of the stem of a plant);
  • a similar function (eg »chair leg« – the piece of furniture stands on wooden sticks like humans and animals on their legs);
  • the merging of ideas (eg “song of the waves” – the sound of the water is reminiscent of music).

Unconscious and conscious metaphors

Many metaphors have become an integral part of our everyday language over time. We use it unconsciously . The use of some such symbols is even necessary , as there are no other names for the subject. They fill in gaps in the language. Such a word is also called a dead metaphor or catachrese (from Greek katachresis = abuse), because a transmission of meaning does not take place.

Dead metaphors

  • “Bottleneck”
  • “Spine”
  • “Letterhead”
  • “Fluency”
  • “Table leg”
  • “Bonnet”

The unconscious metaphors include those images that have faded through frequent use. Although other names could be found for them, but the use of the symbols has become a habit. The metaphor is thus a synonym for the other term .

Faded metaphors

  • »Kaderschmiede« (= elite university)
  • “Broken heart” (= heartache)
  • »Glittering party« (= exuberant party)
  • »Eagle eyes« (= very good eyesight)
  • »Hangover breakfast« (= meal that is supposed to drive off the effects of drinking alcohol)
  • “War weariness” (= lack of will to continue to wage war)

On the other hand, there is the conscious, real metaphor . It is used specifically to achieve a specific effect. Such a transfer is absolutely new. The audience is surprised by the pictorial expression.

Conscious metaphors

  • »The European House« (from architecture)
  • »Foundation of society« (from construction / architecture)
  • “Flame of the Spirit” (from the everyday world)
  • »Meltdown in the banking system« (from nuclear physics)
  • »Stream of Life« (from geography / topography)

The metaphor in epic, lyric and drama

In all three forms of literature, metaphorics plays a key role as a rhetorical figure. In addition to metaphors familiar to everyday readers, translated terms are often created by the author. These terms are therefore initially unknown. The context of meaning is easy or difficult to grasp depending on prior knowledge. If the interpretation succeeds, metaphors contribute to the understanding of the text. The clear description creates the opportunity to better understand what is meant without elaborate explanations. In particular, the emotional meaning can be detected more easily.

A well-understood metaphor makes a text easy to read, entertaining and memorable. If their purpose is to decrypt only with difficulty, the text becomes difficult to understand.

Examples

  • “Knights of the napkins”
    Thomas Mann: “Mario and the Wizard”
  • “Last Homestead of Feeling”
    Rainer Maria Rilke: “Exposed on the mountains of the heart”
  • “Dear Torch”
    Friedrich Schiller: “Maria Stuart”

The metaphor in poetry and modernity

Metaphors increase the poetics of texts by drawing pictures with words. An example would be the »clean sky«. In a poetry analysis, the interpretation of metaphors plays an important role.

Examples

  • “The angel who conceals himself in you” (Angel stands metaphorically for the beloved)
    Eduard Möricke: “To the Beloved”
  • “A rose-colored spring weather
    Laid on the lovely face « (happiness and love, being in love are reflected on her face)
    Johann Wolfgang von Goethe: “Welcome and farewell”

Modern authors often use metaphors in ways that are difficult or impossible to decode. The incomprehensible picture forces one to pause while reading. Then the textual environment in which the metaphor stands is more important than the meaning of the transmitted expression.

The metaphor in politics and advertising

Metaphors are also popular in political rhetoric . They make speeches memorable and interesting and make pictures in the minds of the audience. In the face of the financial crisis, for example, politicians speak of the “tide change”. As the listeners visualize, a complicated process is easier for them to grasp.

Examples from politics

  • “The climate in the coalition negotiations was good.” (From meteorology)
  • “Scholz wants to continue the course of his predecessor.” (From the sea)
  • »The course is set for a change.« (Out of circulation)

In advertising , metaphors are indispensable because they convey feelings very well. This is helpful to encourage consumers to buy. In addition, the viewer and potential customer remember memorable images and allegorical phrases better than a linguistic statement.

Examples from advertising

  • »Red Bull lends wings .« (Energy Drink)
  • »The yellow angel .« (ADAC)
  • ” You can build on these stones . « (Schwäbisch Hall)

Differentiation to other stylistic devices

Metaphor and comparison

A metaphor can be recognized by the fact that it is used without further explanation or reference words. It speaks for itself, and the reader or listener must open up the relationship between the two conceptual worlds themselves. In a comparison, on the other hand, this connection is represented by words, often by “how.”

Examples of a comparison

  • “The young woman is swift as a deer.”
  • “He rides like the wind.”
  • “The air is as soft as silk.”

Metaphor and metonymy

A metaphor transfers the actual concept into a foreign realm of meaning. There is originally no connection between the two conceptual worlds: metaphor for love = float on clouds . In metonymy, on the other hand, one word stands for a neighboring one: the leather hit the post; Leather = the football. (Here is the material for the object.)

Further examples of a metonymy

  • »Berlin abolishes the property tax.« (Berlin = the Federal Government)
  • “Goethe is on the top left corner of the shelf.” (Goethe = the works or the books of the poet)

Metaphors from different areas

  • “Tops the sea”
  • “creative head”
  • “Wall of Silence”
  • “Fist on the neck” (inevitable threat)
  • “Power of Darkness” (Forces of Evil)
  • “Desert Ship” (picture for a camel)
  • “Ugly duckling” (expression for a little attractive person)
  • »See something through the pink glasses« (to judge something too positively)

Metaphor – Rhetorical Styles

What is a metaphor? (Definition)

The stylistic metaphor belongs to the tropics: the actual word is replaced by a pictorial expression from another world of concepts. A metaphor is therefore not always clear. It has to be interpreted. Although metaphors can be explained by paraphrasing, some of their impact and / or meaning may be lost.

What are tropics?

Tropics is the generic term for a number of stylistic devices . In a trope (also: Tropus) is always an improper and pictorial expression. The meaning is not directly formulated, but replaced by another linguistic phrase. This comes either from the immediate vicinity or from another area of ​​imagination. It is used to make what is said more vivid and lively or to decorate a speech.

The term derives from the Greek tropos = turn . Even in Greek antiquity, tropics were popular as a means of rhetoric or stylistics. They were separated from each other and individually defined. The tropics include allegory , antonomatism, emphasis, euphemism , hyperbole , irony , catachesis (dead metaphor), Litotes , Metalepse, metaphor, metonymy , periphrase, personification , riddles, sarcasm, and synekdoche .

The famous ancient Greek philosopher and naturalist Aristotle (384 – 322 BC) founded the term metaphorá in his works »Rhetoric« and »Poetics«. Translated, it means transmission (from Greek metà phérein = carry elsewhere).

Examples

  • “Life Clock”
    Here, the clock is transmitted as a device for measuring time on the course of human life .
  • “broken heart”
    We talk about a “broken heart” when someone has a big heartache. Here a damaged part of the body is used as a symbol of painful emotions ; both conceptual worlds flow together in this way.

How are metaphors formed?

Metaphors are created by

  • an analogy in the outer form (for example, “Glimmerstängel” – a cigarette reminiscent of the stem of a plant);
  • a similar function (eg »chair leg« – the piece of furniture stands on wooden sticks like humans and animals on their legs);
  • the merging of ideas (eg “song of the waves” – the sound of the water is reminiscent of music).

Unconscious and conscious metaphors

Many metaphors have become an integral part of our everyday language over time. We use it unconsciously . The use of some such symbols is even necessary , as there are no other names for the subject. They fill in gaps in the language. Such a word is also called a dead metaphor or catachrese (from Greek katachresis = abuse), because a transmission of meaning does not take place.

Dead metaphors

  • “Bottleneck”
  • “Spine”
  • “Letterhead”
  • “Fluency”
  • “Table leg”
  • “Bonnet”

The unconscious metaphors include those images that have faded through frequent use. Although other names could be found for them, but the use of the symbols has become a habit. The metaphor is thus a synonym for the other term .

Faded metaphors

  • »Kaderschmiede« (= elite university)
  • “Broken heart” (= heartache)
  • »Glittering party« (= exuberant party)
  • »Eagle eyes« (= very good eyesight)
  • »Hangover breakfast« (= meal that is supposed to drive off the effects of drinking alcohol)
  • “War weariness” (= lack of will to continue to wage war)

On the other hand, there is the conscious, real metaphor . It is used specifically to achieve a specific effect. Such a transfer is absolutely new. The audience is surprised by the pictorial expression.

Conscious metaphors

  • »The European House« (from architecture)
  • »Foundation of society« (from construction / architecture)
  • “Flame of the Spirit” (from the everyday world)
  • »Meltdown in the banking system« (from nuclear physics)
  • »Stream of Life« (from geography / topography)

The metaphor in epic, lyric and drama

In all three forms of literature, metaphorics plays a key role as a rhetorical figure. In addition to metaphors familiar to everyday readers, translated terms are often created by the author. These terms are therefore initially unknown. The context of meaning is easy or difficult to grasp depending on prior knowledge. If the interpretation succeeds, metaphors contribute to the understanding of the text. The clear description creates the opportunity to better understand what is meant without elaborate explanations. In particular, the emotional meaning can be detected more easily.

A well-understood metaphor makes a text easy to read, entertaining and memorable. If their purpose is to decrypt only with difficulty, the text becomes difficult to understand.

Examples

  • “Knights of the napkins”
    Thomas Mann: “Mario and the Wizard”
  • “Last Homestead of Feeling”
    Rainer Maria Rilke: “Exposed on the mountains of the heart”
  • “Dear Torch”
    Friedrich Schiller: “Maria Stuart”

The metaphor in poetry and modernity

Image result for writingMetaphors increase the poetics of texts by drawing pictures with words. An example would be the »clean sky«. In a poetry analysis, the interpretation of metaphors plays an important role.

Examples

  • “The angel who conceals himself in you” (Angel stands metaphorically for the beloved)
    Eduard Möricke: “To the Beloved”
  • “A rose-colored spring weather
    Laid on the lovely face « (happiness and love, being in love are reflected on her face)
    Johann Wolfgang von Goethe: “Welcome and farewell”

Modern authors often use metaphors in ways that are difficult or impossible to decode. The incomprehensible picture forces one to pause while reading. Then the textual environment in which the metaphor stands is more important than the meaning of the transmitted expression.

The metaphor in politics and advertising

Metaphors are also popular in political rhetoric . They make speeches memorable and interesting and make pictures in the minds of the audience. In the face of the financial crisis, for example, politicians speak of the “tide change”. As the listeners visualize, a complicated process is easier for them to grasp.

Examples from politics

  • “The climate in the coalition negotiations was good.” (From meteorology)
  • “Scholz wants to continue the course of his predecessor.” (From the sea)
  • »The course is set for a change.« (Out of circulation)

In advertising , metaphors are indispensable because they convey feelings very well. This is helpful to encourage consumers to buy. In addition, the viewer and potential customer remember memorable images and allegorical phrases better than a linguistic statement.

Examples from advertising

  • »Red Bull lends wings .« (Energy Drink)
  • »The yellow angel .« (ADAC)
  • ” You can build on these stones . « (Schwäbisch Hall)

Differentiation to other stylistic devices

Metaphor and comparison

A metaphor can be recognized by the fact that it is used without further explanation or reference words. It speaks for itself, and the reader or listener must open up the relationship between the two conceptual worlds themselves. In a comparison, on the other hand, this connection is represented by words, often by “how.”

Examples of a comparison

  • “The young woman is swift as a deer.”
  • “He rides like the wind.”
  • “The air is as soft as silk.”

Metaphor and metonymy

A metaphor transfers the actual concept into a foreign realm of meaning. There is originally no connection between the two conceptual worlds: metaphor for love = float on clouds . In metonymy, on the other hand, one word stands for a neighboring one: the leather hit the post; Leather = the football. (Here is the material for the object.)

Further examples of a metonymy

  • »Berlin abolishes the property tax.« (Berlin = the Federal Government)
  • “Goethe is on the top left corner of the shelf.” (Goethe = the works or the books of the poet)

Metaphors from different areas

  • “Tops the sea”
  • “creative head”
  • “Wall of Silence”
  • “Fist on the neck” (inevitable threat)
  • “Power of Darkness” (Forces of Evil)
  • “Desert Ship” (picture for a camel)
  • “Ugly duckling” (expression for a little attractive person)
  • »See something through the pink glasses« (to judge something too positively)

Litotes – Rhetorical Styles

What is a Litotes?

Image result for litotesThe Litotes (from Greek “litótēs” = simplicity, restraint) is a rhetorical stylistic device. It belongs to the tropics and is closely related to irony .

What are tropics?

Tropics is the generic term for a number of stylistic devices . In a trope (also: Tropus) is always an improper and pictorial expression. The meaning is not directly formulated, but replaced by another linguistic phrase. This comes either from the immediate vicinity or from another area of ​​imagination. It is used to make what is said more vivid and lively or to decorate a speech.

The term derives from the Greek tropos = turn . Even in Greek antiquity, tropics were popular as a means of rhetoric or stylistics. They were separated from each other and individually defined. The tropics include allegory , antonomatism, emphasis, euphemism , hyperbole , irony , catachesis (dead metaphor), Litotes, Metalepse, metaphor , metonymy , periphrase, personification , riddles, sarcasm, and synekdoche .

The Litotes belongs to the word figures and is

  • either the affirmation by double negation or by negation of the opposite
  • or the emphasis on what is meant by understatement and weakening.

Double negation and negation of the opposite are often not clearly separated. It is true that the negation of the opposite can be defined as a special form of double negation; nevertheless, the differences can be named and clearly distinguish both forms.

Affirmation by double negation

With almost all forms of double negation an affirmation is expressed in the German language. This also applies to the Litotes. In the case of double negation, a negative particle or a negative pronoun is called twice.

Examples of double negation

Example 1:

A mother accuses her daughter of going out without her knowledge. But the daughter told her about the invitation to a birthday party. She says:

“It’s not true (1) that I did not mention that (2).”
(= “I told you.”)

Example 2:

A police investigator says about a suspect:

“I do not believe (1) that he has nothing (2) to deal with.”
(= “I think he is the culprit.”)

Example 3:

An elderly woman points out with a view to her future:

“I have no (1) fear of not getting any (2) pension.”
(= “I’m sure I’ll get the pension.”)

Affirmation by negation of the opposite

When negating the opposite, the negative particle or the negative pronoun is mentioned only once. The second negation occurs indirectly by the mention of the opposite.

Examples of negation of the opposite

Example 1:

A music lover says about a world-famous tenor:

“He’s not (1) the worst singer (2).”
(= “He is a great master of his trade.”)

Example 2:

A woman complains about her internet acquaintance:

“He really is not a (1) gentleman (2).”
(= “He is a rude lout.”)

Her friend still likes the man. She answers:

“I still do not (1) despise him (2).”
(= »I still find him attractive.«)

Negation of the opposite as well packaged criticism

The negation of the opposite can also be a way to apply criticism in a gentle way that is better served by the addressee than a “frontal attack”: “You are no longer the leanest” sounds more nice than: “You have become fat.” “She is not a heroine” expresses more understanding of human weaknesses than: “She is cowardly.”

This use of the Litotes is characteristic of the ironic language style of Thomas Mann . He does not say about the old consul, Johann Buddenbrook, that he dresses fashionably, but: “At the age of seventy, he was not unfaithful to the fashion of his youth.”

Highlighted by understatement and mitigation

In another form of the Litotes the actually meant statement is underlined by weakening and undercutting. In this way, appreciation, praise and admiration can be expressed.

Examples of reinforcement by understatement and mitigation

Example 1:

A German teacher sees a pupil reading Rilke in his spare time saying:

“Rilke is said to have written passable poems, I’ve heard.”
(= “Rilke is one of the greatest poets.”)

He expresses his appreciation and approval of the pupil’s clever choice of reading materials.

Example 2:

A man visits his brother for the first time in his newly acquired, stately mansion. He says:

“You’ve got a nice house there.”
(= “Wow, what a fantastic house!”)

He states that he is impressed by the size and features of the house. This type of understatement is particularly appropriate when applied to someone else’s talents, possessions or achievements. The irony of understatement is a pleasant compliment.

By contrast, when talking about oneself in this form, one hides behind apparent understatement. Anyone who always speaks of his “hut” and thus means a magnificent estate on the Côte d’Azur, does not mean to emphasize his modesty but his luxurious lifestyle.

Relationship to the hyperbola

Related to the Litotes is the stylistic device of the hyperbola . It is an exaggeration emphasis, using the reverse language method to achieve the same goal.

Litotes – Rhetorical Styles

What is a Litotes?

Image result for litotesThe Litotes (from Greek “litótēs” = simplicity, restraint) is a rhetorical stylistic device. It belongs to the tropics and is closely related to irony .

What are tropics?

Tropics is the generic term for a number of stylistic devices . In a trope (also: Tropus) is always an improper and pictorial expression. The meaning is not directly formulated, but replaced by another linguistic phrase. This comes either from the immediate vicinity or from another area of ​​imagination. It is used to make what is said more vivid and lively or to decorate a speech.

The term derives from the Greek tropos = turn . Even in Greek antiquity, tropics were popular as a means of rhetoric or stylistics. They were separated from each other and individually defined. The tropics include allegory , antonomatism, emphasis, euphemism , hyperbole , irony , catachesis (dead metaphor), Litotes, Metalepse, metaphor , metonymy , periphrase, personification , riddles, sarcasm, and synekdoche .

The Litotes belongs to the word figures and is

  • either the affirmation by double negation or by negation of the opposite
  • or the emphasis on what is meant by understatement and weakening.

Double negation and negation of the opposite are often not clearly separated. It is true that the negation of the opposite can be defined as a special form of double negation; nevertheless, the differences can be named and clearly distinguish both forms.

Affirmation by double negation

With almost all forms of double negation an affirmation is expressed in the German language. This also applies to the Litotes. In the case of double negation, a negative particle or a negative pronoun is called twice.

Examples of double negation

Example 1:

A mother accuses her daughter of going out without her knowledge. But the daughter told her about the invitation to a birthday party. She says:

“It’s not true (1) that I did not mention that (2).”
(= “I told you.”)

Example 2:

A police investigator says about a suspect:

“I do not believe (1) that he has nothing (2) to deal with.”
(= “I think he is the culprit.”)

Example 3:

An elderly woman points out with a view to her future:

“I have no (1) fear of not getting any (2) pension.”
(= “I’m sure I’ll get the pension.”)

Affirmation by negation of the opposite

When negating the opposite, the negative particle or the negative pronoun is mentioned only once. The second negation occurs indirectly by the mention of the opposite.

Examples of negation of the opposite

Example 1:

A music lover says about a world-famous tenor:

“He’s not (1) the worst singer (2).”
(= “He is a great master of his trade.”)

Example 2:

A woman complains about her internet acquaintance:

“He really is not a (1) gentleman (2).”
(= “He is a rude lout.”)

Her friend still likes the man. She answers:

“I still do not (1) despise him (2).”
(= »I still find him attractive.«)

Negation of the opposite as well packaged criticism

The negation of the opposite can also be a way to apply criticism in a gentle way that is better served by the addressee than a “frontal attack”: “You are no longer the leanest” sounds more nice than: “You have become fat.” “She is not a heroine” expresses more understanding of human weaknesses than: “She is cowardly.”

This use of the Litotes is characteristic of the ironic language style of Thomas Mann . He does not say about the old consul, Johann Buddenbrook, that he dresses fashionably, but: “At the age of seventy, he was not unfaithful to the fashion of his youth.”

Highlighted by understatement and mitigation

In another form of the Litotes the actually meant statement is underlined by weakening and undercutting. In this way, appreciation, praise and admiration can be expressed.

Examples of reinforcement by understatement and mitigation

Example 1:

A German teacher sees a pupil reading Rilke in his spare time saying:

“Rilke is said to have written passable poems, I’ve heard.”
(= “Rilke is one of the greatest poets.”)

He expresses his appreciation and approval of the pupil’s clever choice of reading materials.

Example 2:

A man visits his brother for the first time in his newly acquired, stately mansion. He says:

“You’ve got a nice house there.”
(= “Wow, what a fantastic house!”)

He states that he is impressed by the size and features of the house. This type of understatement is particularly appropriate when applied to someone else’s talents, possessions or achievements. The irony of understatement is a pleasant compliment.

By contrast, when talking about oneself in this form, one hides behind apparent understatement. Anyone who always speaks of his “hut” and thus means a magnificent estate on the Côte d’Azur, does not mean to emphasize his modesty but his luxurious lifestyle.

Relationship to the hyperbola

Related to the Litotes is the stylistic device of the hyperbola . It is an exaggeration emphasis, using the reverse language method to achieve the same goal.

Litotes – Rhetorical Styles

What is a Litotes?

Image result for litotesThe Litotes (from Greek “litótēs” = simplicity, restraint) is a rhetorical stylistic device. It belongs to the tropics and is closely related to irony .

What are tropics?

Tropics is the generic term for a number of stylistic devices . In a trope (also: Tropus) is always an improper and pictorial expression. The meaning is not directly formulated, but replaced by another linguistic phrase. This comes either from the immediate vicinity or from another area of ​​imagination. It is used to make what is said more vivid and lively or to decorate a speech.

The term derives from the Greek tropos = turn . Even in Greek antiquity, tropics were popular as a means of rhetoric or stylistics. They were separated from each other and individually defined. The tropics include allegory , antonomatism, emphasis, euphemism , hyperbole , irony , catachesis (dead metaphor), Litotes, Metalepse, metaphor , metonymy , periphrase, personification , riddles, sarcasm, and synekdoche .

The Litotes belongs to the word figures and is

  • either the affirmation by double negation or by negation of the opposite
  • or the emphasis on what is meant by understatement and weakening.

Double negation and negation of the opposite are often not clearly separated. It is true that the negation of the opposite can be defined as a special form of double negation; nevertheless, the differences can be named and clearly distinguish both forms.

Affirmation by double negation

With almost all forms of double negation an affirmation is expressed in the German language. This also applies to the Litotes. In the case of double negation, a negative particle or a negative pronoun is called twice.

Examples of double negation

Example 1:

A mother accuses her daughter of going out without her knowledge. But the daughter told her about the invitation to a birthday party. She says:

“It’s not true (1) that I did not mention that (2).”
(= “I told you.”)

Example 2:

A police investigator says about a suspect:

“I do not believe (1) that he has nothing (2) to deal with.”
(= “I think he is the culprit.”)

Example 3:

An elderly woman points out with a view to her future:

“I have no (1) fear of not getting any (2) pension.”
(= “I’m sure I’ll get the pension.”)

Affirmation by negation of the opposite

When negating the opposite, the negative particle or the negative pronoun is mentioned only once. The second negation occurs indirectly by the mention of the opposite.

Examples of negation of the opposite

Example 1:

A music lover says about a world-famous tenor:

“He’s not (1) the worst singer (2).”
(= “He is a great master of his trade.”)

Example 2:

A woman complains about her internet acquaintance:

“He really is not a (1) gentleman (2).”
(= “He is a rude lout.”)

Her friend still likes the man. She answers:

“I still do not (1) despise him (2).”
(= »I still find him attractive.«)

Negation of the opposite as well packaged criticism

The negation of the opposite can also be a way to apply criticism in a gentle way that is better served by the addressee than a “frontal attack”: “You are no longer the leanest” sounds more nice than: “You have become fat.” “She is not a heroine” expresses more understanding of human weaknesses than: “She is cowardly.”

This use of the Litotes is characteristic of the ironic language style of Thomas Mann . He does not say about the old consul, Johann Buddenbrook, that he dresses fashionably, but: “At the age of seventy, he was not unfaithful to the fashion of his youth.”

Highlighted by understatement and mitigation

In another form of the Litotes the actually meant statement is underlined by weakening and undercutting. In this way, appreciation, praise and admiration can be expressed.

Examples of reinforcement by understatement and mitigation

Example 1:

A German teacher sees a pupil reading Rilke in his spare time saying:

“Rilke is said to have written passable poems, I’ve heard.”
(= “Rilke is one of the greatest poets.”)

He expresses his appreciation and approval of the pupil’s clever choice of reading materials.

Example 2:

A man visits his brother for the first time in his newly acquired, stately mansion. He says:

“You’ve got a nice house there.”
(= “Wow, what a fantastic house!”)

He states that he is impressed by the size and features of the house. This type of understatement is particularly appropriate when applied to someone else’s talents, possessions or achievements. The irony of understatement is a pleasant compliment.

By contrast, when talking about oneself in this form, one hides behind apparent understatement. Anyone who always speaks of his “hut” and thus means a magnificent estate on the Côte d’Azur, does not mean to emphasize his modesty but his luxurious lifestyle.

Relationship to the hyperbola

Related to the Litotes is the stylistic device of the hyperbola . It is an exaggeration emphasis, using the reverse language method to achieve the same goal.